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Глаголы, за которыми следует герундий или инфинитив

С разницей в значении

 

1. forget + to-inf (забыть что-л. сделать) forget + -ingform (забыть о прошлом событии ‑ употребляется только в отрицательном смысле) I’m sorry, I forgot to switch off the computer. I’ll never forget using the Internet for the first time.
2. remember + to-inf (не забыть что-л. сделать) remember + -ing form (вспомнить о прошлом событии) Remember to read the instructions. I remember reading about the earthquake in the papers.
3. mean + to-inf (намереваться что-л. сделать) mean +-ing form (включать в себя, содержать) She means to find a job abroad. Studying harder means getting better marks.
4. go on+ to-inf (закончить делать что-л. и начать делать что-л. еще) go on + -ing form (продолжать) After finishing his BA, he went on to get a master’s degree. He went on talking about his experiment.
5. regret + to-inf (сожалеть)   regret + -ing form (высказать сожаление по поводу того, что уже сделано, изменить мнение о том, что сделано) I regret to say that you have failed your exam. I regret being unfair to my colleagues.
6. would prefer+ to-inf (особое предпочтение) prefer + -ing form (общее предпочтение) prefer + to-inf + (rather than) + inf without to I’d prefer to have an early night tonight. I prefer doing everything myself to asking somebody’s help. I prefer to do everything myself (rather) than ask for somebody’s help.
7. try + to-inf (делать все от себя зависящее, пытаться) try + -ing form (сделать что-л. в порядке эксперимента) He tried hard to cope with his new job.   Try phoning John at the office if he’s not at home.
8. want+ to-inf (хотеть) want + -ing form (нуждаться в том, чтобы действие, выраженное герундием, было сделано) I want to find a better job. The device wants reparing.
9. stop + to-inf (временно прерваться) stop + -ing form (закончить, прекратить) I stopped to give explanations to my group mates. I can’t stop him talking to the press.
10. be sorry+ to-inf (сожалеть) be sorry for + -ing form (извиняться) I’m sorry to hear that you have failed the exam. I’m sorry for misunderstanding/having misunderstood what you said.
11. hate + to-inf (сожалеть, чувствовать себя неловко по поводу того, что собираешься сделать) hate + -ing form (чувствовать сожаление по поводу того, что делаешь) I hate to interrupt you, but I must talk to you.   I hate making you feel uncomfortable.
12. be afraid + to-inf (бояться что-л. сделать) be afraid of + -ing form (бояться того, что действие, выраженное герундием, может произойти) She was afraid to protest. (so she kept quiet). She didn’t tell him about the experiment because she was afraid of upsetting him.

 



Сложный герундиальный оборот

Сложный герундиальный оборот – это сочетание притяжательного местоимения или существительного в притяжательном или общем падеже с герундием, выступающее в предложении как единый (сложный) член предложения. Такие обороты обычно переводятся на русский язык придаточным предложением.

Как единый член предложения сложный герундиальный оборот может выполнять в предложении различные функции:

 

Функции Примеры Перевод
1. Сложное подлежащее John’s doing it at once is absolutely imperative. Совершенно необходимо, чтобы Джон сделал это немедленно.
2. Сложное дополнение The potential of a conductor rises because of the electrons being crowded upon a conductor. Потенциал проводника повышается из-за того, что электроны скапливаются на проводнике.
3. Сложное определение The process of one substance mixing with another is called diffusion. Процесс смешивания одного вещества с другим называется диффузией.
4. Сложное обстоятельство. By our increasing the pressure we increase the force of friction. Увеличивая давление, мы увеличиваем силу трения.

 

Practice

Exercise 1. State the form of the Gerund. Translate the sentences into Russian.  
1. I don’t think the collection of essays is worth reprinting.
2. Getting several viewpoints is vital.
3. Can you recall having mentioned the fact to anyone?
4. After having been rejected by a dozen magazines, the article was published in The Globe.
5. Walking, riding, flying, dancing and so on are all familiar examples of motion.
6. Each specimen is tested again after being lowered into the acid.
7. We know of wood having been used as structural material in prehistoric times.
8. Apologizing for having stayed so long he asked Andrew to proceed with his investigation.
9. After all the data being obtained, the crystal was taken from the oil-bath.
10. Induction is a method of charging a conductor from a charged object which does not require bringing the two into contact.
       

 

Exercise 2. Use the correct form of the Gerund of the verb in brackets. Translate into Russian.  
1. Why do you avoid (see) me?
2. He tried to avoid (see).
3. We insist on (send) him there at once.
4. He insists on (send) there instead of me.
5. Do you mind (examine) the first?
6. The equipment must go through a number of tests before (install).
7. I don’t remember (ask) this question.
8. We know of the work (carry out) in this laboratory.
9. He liked to do things without (disturb) anyone or (disturb).
10. You never mentioned (speak) to them on the subject.
11. This is the result of our (not specify) input or output variables for the network.
12. In spite of (meet) with failure they continued experimenting.
       

 

Exercise 3. Join two sentences to make one sentence using the Gerund. Use the following expressions: it is (of) no use, it is useless, it is (no) good, it is (not) worth (while), there is no point in.

 

Model: Don’t worry about it. It’s no use.
It’s no use worrying about it.
There is no point in worrying about it.

 

1. Don’t speak of the matter. It’s useless.
2. Consider the purpose of the investigation. It may be useful.
3. Don’t buy a second-hand car. It’s a waste of money.
4. Don’t try to escape. It’s no use.
5. Don’t learn rules without examples. It’s useless.
6. Don’t study if you are feeling tired. There is no point.
7. Think over the effects I have just described. It’s useful.
8. Don’t even try to persuade him. It’s a waste of time.

 

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences using the Gerund or the Infinitive of the verb in brackets. Remember the usage of the preposition toin every case.  
  1. I’m accustomed to (work) hard.
  2. In addition to (be) a tool of science, mathematics is also an art form.
  3. We are looking forward to (carry out) this investigation.
  4. This allows fine technological operations to (automate).
  5. He can’t get used to (log on) with a password.
  6. Our boss objects to (use) any different method.
  7. Are you accustomed to (ask) questions you cannot answer?
  8. They objected to (use) greater voltage in this case.
  9. A PC is powerful enough to (support) high level language programming.
  10. He objected to (pay) expensive telephone calls for Internet access.
  11. He said he wasn’t used to (speak) in public.
  12. Hard work is the key to (pass) examinations.
  13. I want to (upgrade) my computer.
  14. He was the first to (realize) the difficulty of the situation.
         

 

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences using by+the Gerund. Use one of the following:

 

adjust the position of the rods. tell the truth
burst into tears use a powerful crane
change resistance use a search engine
drive too fast use blue laser light
slide down a rope. work regularly
strike the half-hour  

 

1. You can put people’s lives in danger __.
2. You can improve you English __.
3. They escaped __.
4. You will achieve a lot __.
5. She frightened her friends __.
6. Balancing is done __.
7. The hall clock greeted us __.
8. The reostat controls current strength __.
9. We were able to discharge the boat in 24 hours __.
10. DVD drives read DVD disks __.
11. You can find information on the Internet __.

 

Exercise 6. Write the correct preposition and write the correct form of the Gerund.
  1. He always depends __ (get) help from other students.
  2. Why did they insist __ (do) everything themselves?
  3. Did Mr. Johnson finally succeed __ (solve) that problem?
  4. You shouldn’t rely __ (get) assistance from other people.
  5. Our teacher doesn’t approve __ (study) late at night.
  6. He’s really quite capable __ (complete) the work by himself.
  7. She was proud __ (finish) the work in such a short time.
  8. Mr. Foster constantly worries __ (lose) his position.
  9. The bad weather prevented them __ (leave) last Friday.
  10. I’m not particularly fond __ (attend) lectures.
  11. You can access many free and legal music files __ (download) __ (visit) www.mp3.com.
       

 

Exercise 7. Here are some common set expressions with the Gerund. Match them with the explanations below.
1. It's no use crying over spilt milk (proverb). a. No one knows/No one can tell.
2. There's no knowing/telling (what he'll do). b. I don't need to tell you.
3. It goes without saying ... c. People often have strange likes and dislikes.
4. There's no accounting for taste. d. There's no point in making fuss about something we can't put right.

 

Exercise 8. Match A and B. Translate the sentences.
  A   В
1. We very much appreciate a) my leaving till the next day.
2. He strongly denied b) their meeting that afternoon.
3. We enjoyed c) her taking more responsibility.
4. The chairman suggested d) the band's playing very much.
5. I agreed to delay e) our postponing the question till later.
6. He should consider f) your helping us.
7. I can't excuse g) your meeting Miss Brown!
8. You must pardon h) our escaping.
9. Would you mind i) Jim arriving so late.
10. I can't bear j) you / your bringing me breakfast in bed.
11. They can't prevent k) Jane practicing in the room next to yours?
12. Please forgive l) him / his whistling when I'm trying to concentrate.
13. I really miss m) her not answering our invitation.
14. Fancy n) my not getting up.

 

 

Exercise 9. Choose the Gerund or the Infinitive to complete the sentences.
1. My friend promised (return) the book very soon.  
2. Most people enjoy (write) letters to their friends.  
3. Have you ever considered (try) something different?  
4. I would appreciate (hear) from you as soon as possible.  
5. Would you mind (wait) for 15 or 20 minutes?  
6. We don’t dare (suggest) that possibility to them.  
7. I can’t stand (listen) to his complaints any longer.  
8. Don’t switch off without (close down) your PC.  
9. Please stop (interrupt) me in the middle of a sentence.  
10. Smith claims (be) an expert on that particular subject.  
11. You needn’t learn how to (program) in HTML before (design) web pages.  
12. Why do you always put off (write) to your friends?  
       

 

Exercise 10. Supply the correct forms of the Gerund or the Infinitive. Give two forms where both are possible.
1. Do you remember (use) a smartcard for the first time?  
2. Remember to post the letters on your way home.  
3. I’d prefer (pretend) I didn’t hear what you just said.  
4. I prefer (borrow) books from the library to (buy) them.  
5. Ann was afraid (add) an extension board herself.  
6. I’m afraid of (lose) sensitive information.  
7. She began (test) the sample.  
8. We had to postpone (upgrade) his PC.  
9. He tried to (hack into) the system without (know) the password.  
       

 

Exercise 11. A. Look at the HELP box and decide if the –ing form in these sentences are gerunds, present participles or adjectives. Write g, pp or a.

 

HELP box
The –ing form We use the –ing form in three ways: 1. Rendering includes lighting and shading. 2. We are designing a new car on а computer. 3. They use special applets to create amazing fractals. · In 1, rendering is a gerund (see below), acting as the subject. Lighting and shading are also gerunds, acting as the objects. A gerund refers to an activity or process. In 2, designingis a present participle. This is used in continuous tenses (in the above example, the present continuous) and reduced relative clauses.

 

… a representation showing the outlines of all edges. (= which shows the outlines…) In 3, amazing is an adjective. We use gerunds in the following ways. As the subject of a verb Compositing is combining parts of different images to create a single image. As the complement of the subject Compositing is combining parts of different images… As the object of a verb I enjoy editing pictures.
As the complement of a verb This course involves painting and drawing in various media. Some verbs are followed by the gerund, not by the infinitive (e.g. avoid, fancy, finish, give up, hate, imagine, involve, keep, look forward to, mind, suggest, enjoy)

 

1. PCs generate graphics by performing mathematical calculations on data.
2. Business people use graphics to make information more interesting visually.
3. Graphs and diagrams can be more effective ways of communicating with clients than lists of figures.
4. She is designing a logo for the company.
5. If you need to make a presentation, I suggest using PowerPoint.
6. The Internet is a network linking other networks.

 

  B. Correct the mistakes in these sentences. There are seven mistakes in total.

 

1. Computer animation is the process of create objects which move across the screen.
2. Texturing involves add paint, colour and filters to drawings and designs.
3. You can open the colour palette by click on the corresponding icon.
4. CAD programs are very fast at to perform drawing functions.
5. A lot of time and money is saved by test a car design before to make the product.
6. To render refers to the techniques used to make realistic images.

 

Exercise 12. Translate the text paying attention to the role of the Gerund in the sentences.

 



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