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The Infinitive and the -ing Form


Exercise 1. Below is a list of verbs which can take either the to-infinitive or the gerund with little change of meaning. Read them and translate into Russian.


advise bother dread intend love plan start
allow continue forbid leave neglect prefer study
begin dislike hate like permit propose can’t bear


Exercise 2. Match the line on the left with the line on the right. Analyse the use of the to-infinitives or -ing forms.
1. They stopped reading the article a) because it didn’t contain any valuable information.
2. They stopped to read the article b) to get ready for the conference.


1. She remembers submitting a) the paper three weeks before the conference.
2. Please remember to submit b) the paper three weeks ago.


1. Try combining a) practical work with scientific research.
2. I tried my best to combine b) practical work with scientific research but it was no use.


1. I prefer taking a postgraduate course a) next year.
2. I’d prefer to take a postgraduate course b) to working at a plant.


1. On Mondays I like to attend a) lectures of this professor but I’ll be away then.
2. I like attending b) lectures in the morning.
3. I’ d like to attend the c) lectures.
1. I believe that what I said was fair. I don’t regret a) saying it.
2. I regret b) to inform you that your application form has been refused.
1. Please go on a) making experiments. I don’t mind waiting.
2. After discussing the methods used, the researcher went on b) to talk about the hypothesis.
Exercise 3. Write each pair of sentences as one. Use the correct verbal forms.
Model: The scientific supervisor didn’t send his abstract. He forgot. The scientific supervisor forgot to send his abstract.
1. The postgraduate students once attended the lecture of Zhores Alferov. They’ll never forget it.
2. She did research in the field of microelectronics but she failed to defend her thesis. She regretted it.
3. She has failed her exam. I regret it but I have to tell her about it.
4. There wasn’t enough time to finish my experiment. I tried my best.
5. You want to prove this theory and do a scientific experiment. You should try.
6. They should tell us about the conference. They remember it.
7. I met him at the scientific conference two years ago. I can remember it.


Exercise 4. Expand the words or phrases in brackets. Use both the to-infinitive and the -ing form whenever possible. The first one has been done for you.
1. What does the decision maker try to obtain / try obtaining by solving the problem?
2. Being absent-minded he often (forget / register) the results of the experiment.
3. He can’t find a good job, he (regret / not take) postgraduate courses.
4. After discussing experimental data the researcher (go on / talk) about a new method.
5. As he hasn’t finished his experiments research work (need / improve).
6. Please forgive me for interrupting you but would you (mind / repeat) that last sentence?
7. The speaker said he would confine himself (try / answer) four questions.
8. Would you please (remind me / call) her tomorrow?


Exercise 5. Put in the to-infinitive or the -ing form of the verbs.
1. The development of science is likely (lead) to many undesirable consequences unless great effort is made (control) the application of scientific discoveries.
2. Science could (be) developed in a new way (become) a meaningful social activity.
3. I would (be) glad (see) my son (do) science.
4. There will (be) a growing tendency for scientists (occupy) themselves with problems which affect fairly directly the lives of people.
5. There seems (to exist) a great need (develop) science.
6. (cite) but a few examples, there are such problems as urban development, education and the prevention of war.
7. I don’t deny (say) that.
8. Having suggested the scheme myself I now feel committed (try) (make) it work.
9. She was allowed (renew) her student visa.
10. They appreciate (have) this information.


Exercise 6. Make sentences from the notes. Use either the to-infinitive or the -ing form.


Model: always /complicated / the / was / solve / a / he / first / to / problem/ He was always the first to solve a complicated problem.
1. Science / be / seem / in / people / to / disappointed / some.
2. Making / can / mistakes / avoid / nobody.
3. Make / how / don’t / we / to / the / know / reaction / occur.
4. Mentioning / one / is / worth / point / there.
5. To / two / the / failed / scientists / from / return / expedition.
6. Him / his / at / the / let / floor/ supervisor / the / conference / take / scientific.
7. Succeeded / a / flexible / building / we / in / system.
8. To / would /ages / this /take / master / it / subject.
9. Was / to / out / the / made / experiments / he / carry.
10. Hours / on / the / report / for / went / writing / she.
Exercise 7. Complete the second sentence so that it is as similar in meaning as possible to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change this word.
1. I’m sorry but we have not accepted your application. I … (regret)
2. I think it would be a good idea to participate in this symposium. I … (suggest)
3. The supervisor succeeded in persuading his postgraduate student to write a scientific paper. The supervisor … (managed)
4. I can’t wait to get your next message. I … (forward)
5. The students were not allowed to look into their notes. The teachers … (let)
6. It looks as if this article was published many years ago. This … (appears)
7. One of the things I hate is people talking during the lecture. One of the things I …. (stand)
8. The professor said that they had to make detailed observations. The professor … (insisted)
9. The lecturer arrived forty minutes late but they were glad they had waited for him. The lecturer … (worth)
10. The chairman made an effort to call the meeting to order but it was no use. The chairman … (tried)
Exercise 8. Write the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. Sometimes more than one answer may be possible.


Einstein: an ordinary child

Einstein was not a remarkable child. He began 1__ (take) piano lessons at the age of six. He didn’t seem 2__ (be) particularly talented. He liked 3__ (day-dream) and 4__ (play). He didn’t enjoy 5__ (talk) very much; in fact, he waited till he was three before 6__ (start) to talk. In spite of not 7__ (have) a very exciting childhood, Einstein later appeared 8__ (have) a vivid memory of it. He remembered 9__ (be) impressed by how a compass works and by the mysterious force which made the compass needle 10__ (point) in a given direction.


Exercise 9. Choose the most suitable form.  
1. Most of the scientists (invited / inviting) to the conference were (leading / led) specialists in various branches of radioengineering.
2. Experiment is a test (carried out / being carried out) to gain new knowledge.
3. The number of electronic computers (used / having been used) in any (given / giving) field of human activity is an indication of the degree of its modernity.
4. When (giving / given) advice to others, think whether you would follow it yourself.
5. She avoided (expressing / to express) her opinion in public.
6. Before (discussing / to discuss) the method it is necessary (getting / to get) some additional information.
7. They succeeded (in solving / to solve) the two problems.
8. They suggested (performing / to perform) an experiment (proving / to prove) their point.
9. There are two approaches to the solution of the problem, one (being / to be) used in analytical investigations, the other in simulation.
10. The change in velocity resulted from the force (acting / to act) from outside.
Exercise 10. Use the required form of verbals.  
1. The success of any research depends largely on (define) precisely its objective.
2. It is sometimes very difficult (make) people (see) your point.
3. By (realize) the threat to our environment we have made the first step to its preservation.
4. Unfortunately the advantage of (join ) efforts for a complicated job is not always understood.
5. The scientist (recognize) a problem does the first step to its solution.
6. Nobody can avoid people’s (discuss) their mistakes.
7. These advanced concepts have been immediately applied to practice, (give) rise to a new branch of technology.
8. Research is searching without (know) what you are going to find.
9. We have overcome the difficulties by directly (consider) all the strategies.
10. The human race can continue (benefit) from science for centuries to come.
11. It’s no use (try) (interrupt) him. You’ll have (wait) till he stops (talk).

Раздел 6. Причастие

Формы причастия

Voice Tenses Active Passive  
Present Participle (Participle I) doing being done выражает действие, происходящее одновременно с действием, выраженным сказуемым
Perfect Participle having done having been done выражает действие, предшествовавшее действию, выраженному сказуемым
Past participle (Participle II) - done выражает действие, происходящее одновременно с действием, выраженным сказуемым, раньше или позже этого действия


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