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Функции инфинитива в предложении

Функции Примеры
1. Подлежащее После формального подлежащего it To savemoney is not easy. It is important to obey the laws of the country.
2. Часть сложного подлежащего (Complex Subject) 1) после глаголов say, believe, know, expect, think, state, announce etc. 2) после глаголов seem, appear, happen, prove, chance, turn out etc. 3) после прилагательных (un)likely, certain, sure etc.     She is said to have completed the experiment. He proved to be a good engineer.   He is sure to be awarded a prize for his scientific research.
3. Часть составного глагольного сказуемого 1) с модальными глаголами 2) с глаголами, характеризующими протекание действия begin, start, continue, cease, would, used to etc.   You ought to fulfill the task on time. She’s started to plan her business career. She used to work in this laboratory.
4. Дополнение 1) после глаголов want, wish, decide, aim, fail, hurry, manage, offer, prepare, refuse, try, struggle, hesitate, afford, attempt, deserve, hate, love, like, prefer, plan, ask, choose, hope, promise, remember, forget etc. 2) после прилагательных и причастий: glad, pleased, happy, sorry, able, afraid, ready etc.   We were asked to speak to the manager. He can’t afford to buy new equipment.   I am ready to report the obtained data.
5. Часть сложного дополнения (Complex Object) 1) после глаголов want, wish, like, would like, need, prefer, consider, believe, know, think, prove, suppose, expect etc. to) 2) после глаголов чувственного восприятия hear, feel, see, watch, notice etc. (без to).     I want you to help mewith the assignment. We often see scientists move from one field of research into another.
6. Определение (инфинитив стоит после определяемого слова)   Инфинитив в функции определения часто встречается также после слов: the first, the second, the third, the last The problem to consider next is concerned with the ionization of gases.   He is always the first to come to the university.
7. Обстоятельство 1) цели (инфинитив стоит в начале и в конце предложения с союзами in order to, so as (to) 2) следствия (инфинитив стоит в конце предложения, и ему часто предшествуют слова: enough, too, sufficient, sufficiently)   (In order) to understand the phenomenon the laws of motion should be considered. Some people are too proud to admit that they don’t know.
8. Вводный член предложения (обычно стоит в начале предложения, всегда выделяется запятыми : to tell the truth, to begin with, to sum up, to be sure, to make a long story short, to put it simply, to say the least, to be honest etc. To be honest, I am not yet ready with my research. To begin with, no general method will be given here.


Употребление инфинитива без частицы to


Случаи употребления Примеры
1. После вспомогательных глаголов do, shall/will, should/would I won’t ask him any questions.
2. Для образования повелительного наклонения Approach the problem from different sides.
3. После глаголов let, make в сложном дополнении* в обороте «объектный падеж с инфинитивом» He made metake special care of the accuracy of the calculation.
4. После модальных глаголов (must, can, may etc.) You must put it another way for everybody to understand clearly.
5. После глаголов чувственного восприятия see, hear, listen, watch, feel, notice в сложном дополнении в обороте «объектный падеж с инфинитивом» I heard him admit to have made a similar mistake in his earlier publication.
6. После сочетаний had better, would rather/sooner, rather/sooner…than You had better think logically first in order to write with precision.
7. В вопросах, начинающихся с Why? Why not review recent development in the field of computer-aided design? Why worry?

*В страдательном залогеmakeупотребляется с частицей to:

He was made to workwithout any breaks.

Формы инфинитива


Tenses Действительный залог Active Voice Страдательный залог Passive Voice
Present (to) investigate (to) be investigated
Present Continuous (to) be investigating -
Perfect (to) have investigated (to) have been investigated
Perfect Continuous (to) have been investigating -


Present Infinitive –действие, выраженное инфинитивом, или происходит одновременно со сказуемым, или будет иметь место в будущем (если сказуемое выражено глаголами типа to expect ожидать, полагать; to assume допускать; to suppose предполагать, полагать:

I have never known him to take an active part in the work.

We expect him to take an active part in the work.

Perfect Infinitive –действие, выраженное инфинитивом, происходит раньше действия сказуемого, например:

Such information is unlikely to have been available from the user.

Present Continuous Infinitive– действие инфинитива происходит в тот момент, о котором говорится в предложении, например:

I have never known him to be working at this problem.

Perfect Continuous Infinitive –длительное действие инфинитива совершается в течение отрезка времени, предшествовавшего действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме:

He is known to have been working on this problem for many years.

Passive Infinitive –действие инфинитива, переводимого сказуемым в придаточном предложении, переходит на подлежащее, например:

I know him to have been informed about the meeting.



Exercise 1. Write various forms of the infinitive.


a) Present Infinitive Passive (to translate – to be translated)


to detect to establish to predict to receive to verify
to discount to observe to prove to suggest  


b)Present Continuous Infinitive Active (to translate – to be translating)


to add to describe to discover to record to utilize
to compare to develop to gather to test  


c) Perfect Infinitive Passive (to translate – to have been translated)

to achieve to create to generate to represent to support
to bring about to examine to provide to send  


d) Perfect Continuous Infinitive Active (to translate – to have been translating)


to accumulate to conquer to explain to improve to process
to acquire to discuss to explore to participate  


Exercise 2. Find the infinitive in the sentences, define its form and function.
1. To develop the supercomputer highly developed electronics and new materials were required.
2. This method is not accurate enough to give reliable results.
3. To explain this simple fact is not so easy.
4. The question of the procedure is yet to be settled.
5. The device to be tested has been made in our lab.
6. To begin with, one must be curious about the world around him.


Exercise 3. Use the correct form of the infinitive of the verb in brackets.
1. Everything is just the way it used (be). Nothing seems (change).
2. The money for charity is supposed (raise) by the organizers of the party.
3. He admits (make) a similar mistake in his earlier publication.
4. One can expect the scope of research (expand) steadily.
5. The engineer made the reaction (run) at reduced pressure.
6. These variations were found (make) little difference in the results.
7. They claim (inform) of this possibility before the experiment.
8. Science is known (contribute) to every aspect of people’s life.
9. The product has been proved (affect) the overall yield.
10. Nowadays we see many new areas of research (come) into being as a result of unexpected break.


Exercise 4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the infinitive active or passive.
1. She was sorry that she had missed so many classes before the exams.
2. You should give this matter top priority.
3. It has been found that semiconductors exhibit magnetic properties.
4. We know that the first digital optical disks were produced in 1982 as disks for music.
5. The scientist reported that he had spent six years on the problem.
6. They should regard the study as contributing to fundamental knowledge.
7. He was deeply disappointed that the final results of his research had turned out unsatisfactory.
8. It is concluded that the model provides a very good fit to the experimental data.
9. You should strictly define all the responsibility.
10. Experience shows that this strategy has produced better results than more traditional one.


Exercise 5. Use the infinitives given below as subjects:


to explain to give up to know to lose to operate to see
to explore to imagine to learn to mention to search to speak


1. It is hard __ peaceful coexistence of nations without all-round scientific cooperation among the states.
2. It is often difficult __ the long-term consequences of scientific advance and its applications.
3. It takes time __ the subject - matter thoroughly.
4. It takes long __ the possibility for using alternative sources of energy.
5. It would be rather difficult __ this complex device.
6. It appears advisable __ about an improved version of this method.
7. It takes time __ this phenomenon.


Exercise 6. Use the infinitives given below as predicates:


to ask to deny to keep to produce to take
to become to encourage to measure to reach to try
to control to go on to offend to return  


1. The mission of scientists is __ knowledge.
2. The new apparatus was __ all the temperature changes during the experiment.
3. The main task of a scientific supervisor is __ his postgraduate students to do research.
4. The important thing is __ a different approach to the problem.
5. His aim is __ these preliminary calculations secret.
6. The usual way to evaluate the electrical conduction properties in these connections is __ the contact resistance.
7. Our plan is __ obtaining information from a server.


Exercise 7. Use the infinitives given below as objects:


to air to calculate to lock to promote to show
to be to evaluate to measure to retire to verify
to begin to give to obtain to see off  


1. Many subsequent researchers have attempted __ this micro-contact model.
2. Today universities are interested __ the development of science and technology.
3. A contact model for a rough surface with a soft coating was used __ the effective area in the study.
4. A stereomicroscope was used __ the apparent contact area.
5. A three-dimensional surface topography measurement system was conducted __ the pad surface roughness.
6. The measured surface roughness was used … the effective contact area.


Exercise 8. Paraphrase the following so as to use the infinitives as attributes.  
1. Technological developments have created the opportunity which frees mankind from arduous labour.
2. Our ability which helps to communicate fast and easily has made life more enjoyable.
3. The developed world has a responsibility which enhances partnership activities in science.
4. The needs which improve performance and reduce chip size made copper replace aluminum interconnection for deep integrated circuits.
5. There are many considerations that may be taken into account in determining space velocity.
6. He was the first man who presented the case for this line of research.
7. He was the first scientist who took the floor at this conference.
8. There is one more important factor that can be considered.
9. The researcher was the last who left the laboratory.


Exercise 9. a) Answer the questions. Use the infinitive phrases given in brackets as adverbial modifiers of purpose.
1. Why do scientists utilize existing knowledge in new scientific investigations? (to predict how things will behave).  
2. Why do scientists use mathematics? (to analyze the data and help them interpret their results).  
3. Why do scientists pursue research in basic science? (to satisfy the thirst for knowledge).  
4. Why do scientists conduct research in applied science? (to achieve some kind of practical or profitable gain).  
5. Why do scientists communicate their results with other scientists by publishing them in science journals? (to discuss findings and debate issues).  
6. Why do scientists employ methods of induction in developing a hypothesis? (to generalize from the experiment’s results to predict future outcomes).  
7. Why do scientists employ methods of deduction? (to infer new facts from experimental results).  
8. Why does this study measure the circuit contact resistance? (to evaluate the electrical conduction of various thermosonic wire bonding methods).  
9. Why was the micro-contact theory used? (to determine the effective contact area).  
10. Why did they propose the classical micro-contact model? (to describe the phenomena acting at the contact interface between two surfaces).  


  b) Use the infinitive as an adverbial modifier of purpose.


1. Scientists use computers in order to …
2. He had to work hard in order to …
3. A number of devices were developed in order to …
4. I’ll take a map so as not to …
5. He left early so as not to …
6. She set her alarm clock so as not to …
7. He revised hard for the test in order to …
8. Scientists used only local materials, in order to …
9. Take special care of the accuracy of the calculation in order to …
10. Consider the following analogy so as not to …


Exercise 10. a) Combine the following pairs of sentences into one using the infinitive as an adverbial modifier of result. Use too or enough where necessary.  
1. The program is diversified. It can excite the interest of most graduate students.
2. The concept was advanced. It could not be appreciated by contemporary scientists.
3. The consequences were disastrous. They might exceed anything imaginable.
4. The advantages of such an approach are evident. They could not be taken for granted.
5. The theory is not detailed. It can’t give a complete description.
6. This method is accurate enough. It can give reliable results.


  b) Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use the infinitives of result.
1. The analysis has been so extended that it can be taken into consideration.
2. A new theory was so advanced that it could produce a revolutionary change in our understanding of the process.
3. The paper is so detailed that it enables any other scientist to repeat the research.
4. The technological advance was so great that it could make life easier or more enjoyable.
5. The achievements of the past few decades are so great that science has come to occupy such an important place in the life of the society.
6. The information was so valuable that it should be included in a scientific journal.



Exercise 11. Translate into English.  
1. Вопрос был слишком сложным, чтобы решать его так поспешно.
2. Он достаточно умен, чтобы понять это.
3. Предположение было слишком неожиданным, чтобы его можно было принять во внимание.
4. Проблема достаточно интересна, чтобы возбудить интерес исследователей.
5. Данных было недостаточно, чтобы решить эту проблему.
6. Это предположение не так важно, чтобы рассматривать его серьезно.
7. Эта идея достаточно очевидна, чтобы воспользоваться ею.


Exercise 12. Choose the correct variant. (Infinitive with toandwithout to).
1. Scientists expect lasers (solve) the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction.
2. I heard this concept (mention) during the conference.
3. Such information is unlikely (have been) available from the user.
4. They were made (carry out) mathematical and statistical analysis.
5. They made him (leave) the problem out of the scope of his research.
6. Some people seem (be) disappointed with science.
7. Laser is known (be) a device producing an intensive beam of light by amplifying radiation.
8. We saw them (make) practical measurements using expensive equipment.


Exercise 13. a) Make up sentences:


Model: not easy / write instructions in Java It’s not easy to write instructions in Java.
1. expensive / set up a data-processing area
2. advisable / test the programs under different conditions
3. unusual / write a program that works correctly the first time it’s tested
4. important / use a good debugger to fix errors
5. easy / learn Visual BASIC


  b) Choose the correct word (a-c) to complete these sentences.


1. We use high-level languages because machine code is too difficult __, understand and debug.
  a) read b) reading c) to read
2. I went on the course __ how to be a better programmer.
  a) learn b) to learn c) for to learn
3. He refuses __ the project with me.
  a) do b) doing c) to do
4. The engineers warned the employees not __ the cables.
  a) touch b) touching c) to touch
5. They may not __ to the conference.
  a) come b) coming c) to come
6. Spyware can make your PC __ more slowly.
  a) perform b) performing c) to perform
7. The program is too slow __ the simulation.
  a) do b) to do c) for doing

Инфинитивные обороты

(Infinitive Constructions)


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