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Субъектный инфинитивный оборот

(Subjective Infinitive Construction)


Сложноподчиненное предложение с главным предложением, выраженным безличным оборотом типа it is said, it is reported, it seems, it is likely можно заменить простым предложением:


It is considered that the students conduct research well.
The students are considered to conduct research well.
(подлежащее) (сказуемое) (инфинитив)
Считают, что эти студенты проводят исследование хорошо.


Субъектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется со следующими глаголами в пассивной форме:


to assume to consider to find to know to see to suppose
to believe to expect to hear to report to show to take (полагать)
to claim to estimate to hold to say to state to think


A number of methods has been supposed to provide this representation.

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется со следующими глаголами в активной форме: to appear, to happen, to prove, to seem, to turn out, а также с оборотами: to be certain, to be (un)likely, to be sure.

These two methods turned out to be incompatible in effectiveness.

This theme is likely to stimulate the researcher’s interest.


3. Оборот for+существительное(или местоимение)+ инфинитив.


Как и во всех независимых оборотах, в этой конструкции перед инфинитивом есть слово, обозначающее действующее лицо или предмет, которое вводится предлогом for и при переводе становится подлежащим придаточного предложения. Слово for помогает определить начало русского придаточного предложения, вводимого союзами чтобы, в котором инфинитив становится сказуемым.

For this method to be valuable it must be improved.


Exercise 1. Identify the Objective with the Infinitive Constructions. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. We know the scientist to investigate this problem thoroughly.
2. The scientific supervisor wants his postgraduate student to attend the conference.
3. One may assume the information to be correct.
4. The results of the investigation are very difficult to accept.
5. They consider the results to be satisfactory.
6. We proved this suggestion to be wrong.


Exercise 2. Paraphrase the sentences using Objective with the Infinitive Constructions. Make all the necessary changes.


Model 1: I know that she has an interest in the company. I know her to have an interest in the company.
Model 2: She heard that he mentioned the problem several times. She heard him mentionthe problem several times.


1. We did not know that he was responsible for this experiment.
2. I heard that all collaborators of your department combine activities in research with experimental work.
3. Nowadays we see that scientists move from one field of research into another.
4. Most scientists expect that major developments in the near future will take place in electronics.
5. We know that our present age is the age of the scientific and technological revolution.
6. She heard that he enjoys making reports at scientific conferences.
7. The students saw that the device began to operate.
8. I felt that the results were satisfactory.


Exercise 3. Identify the Complex Subject. Translate the sentences.


Model: 1. The secret was believed to have been lost. Полагали, что секрет был утерян.
  2. She appeared to be supporting the suggestion put forward by her collaborator. Оказалось, что она поддерживает предложение, выдвинутое ее сотрудником.


1. A number of methods has been supposed to provide this formal representation.
2. The conditions seem to have been poorly chosen.
3. This hypothesis is likely to stimulate the researcher’s interest.
4. The fact happened to become known to everybody.
5. The results obtained are considered to be satisfactory.
6. These two methods turned out to be incompatible.
7. The study of single electrical circuits does not seem to have given rise to the phenomenon.


Exercise 4. Change the sentences so as to use Complex Subject.


Model: It is said that he knows several oriental languages.


1. It appears that the possibility of explaining this theory was not excluded.
2. It seems that the studies of single electrical circuits haven’t given rise to the phenomenon.
3. It was proved that these assumptions affected the system capacity.
4. It is unlikely that the development of such a unit is a success.
5. It is certain that the above mentioned reactions proceed smoothly.
6. It turned out that this reaction led to good results.
7. With the advent of nuclear weapon it seemed that some people were disappointed in science.


Exercise 5. Identify the for-Complexes. Translate the sentences.
1. The problem is far too involved for one to be able to solve it.
2. Two hours was sufficient for the reaction to occur.
3. It is necessary for the investigator to apply the knowledge gained from scientific publications to the problem under exploration.
4. Preliminary experiments showed that the time required for the specimen to reach thermal equilibrium was quite long.
5. Under what conditions will the reaction proceed sufficiently rapidly for the method to be practical?
6. Here is one more important point for the speaker to explain.
7. There is a tendency for the method to be used in all the experiments.
8. There is an apparent tendency for science to become more and more mathematical.


Exercise 6. Practice the for-Complex after adjectives. Study the examples, then rewrite the sentences.


Model: He was impatient. He wanted the knowledge gained from the library to be applied to the problem under exploration. He was impatient for the knowledge gained from the library to be applied to the problem under exploration.


1. The researcher was impatient. He wanted the expected results to materialize.
2. The postgraduate student was dissatisfied. He expected the subject of study to be examined from a new fresh approach.
3. The scientific supervisor was disappointed. He would like his students’ papers to be published.
4. They were anxious that the researcher should rewrite some parts of his/her thesis.
5. The applicants were worried that they should undertake a preliminary course.
6. He was excited that he should begin his scientific experiment.


Exercise 7. Choose the phrase A, B, C, which best completes the following English sentences.
1. Сообщается, что исследование проходит удовлетворительно. The investigation…
  a) is proceeding satisfactorily;
b) is to proceed satisfactorily;
c) is announced to proceed satisfactorily.
2. По-видимому, эти условия выбраны плохо. These conditions…
  a) have to be poorly chosen;
b) seemed to be poor;
c) seem to have been poorly chosen.
3. Возможно, он преуспел в решении этой задачи. He was likely …
  a) to succeed in solving this problem;
b) to succeed to solve this problem;
c) to succeed solving this problem.
4. Считают, что эти явления взаимозависимы. These phenomena …
  a) are interdependent;
b) are believed to be interdependent;
c) are to be interdependent.
5. Оказалось, что это вещество загрязнено примесями. This substance turned out…
  a) be contaminated with impurities;
b) to be contaminated with impurities;
c) contaminate with impurities.


Exercise 8. Change the sentences so as to use different constructions with the infinitive.
1. It is considered that light is some kind of wave motion of electromagnetic origin.
2. It is believed that the new method has given good results.
3. It was concluded that the reactions are similar in their behaviour.
4. It appears that the reaction involves a rearrangement.
5. It turns out that peaceful coexistence of nations is unthinkable without all-round scientific cooperation among nations.
6. It is certain that progress in science requires various types of cooperation.
7. It is likely that our ability to communicate fast and easily has made life more enjoyable.
8. It is assumed that all cultures contribute to scientific knowledge.
9. It is reported that science is doing much to eliminate diseases and hunger.
10. It was proved that this theory is correct.
11. It is assumed that people’s knowledge is well-organized and facilitate the understanding of new information.
12. It is expected that this scientist will be involved in this project.


Exercise 9. Translate into English. Use the constructions with the infinitive.
1. Мы видели во время опыта, как температура быстро падала.
2. Он полагает, что его ассистенты скоро закончат опыт.
3. По-видимому, он хорошо знает это правило.
4. Ваш совет оказался полезным.
5. Полученные результаты, оказалось, прекрасно согласуются с прежними данными.
6. В этой статье, по-видимому, существует путаница в терминах.
7. Считают, что эти студенты проводят научные исследования хорошо.
8. Его заставили провести эксперимент.
9. Ему позволили опубликовать статью.


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