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The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

 

Оборот Функция Пример Перевод
Самостоятельный причастный оборот состоит:     Переводится придаточным обстоятельственным предложением; при этом причастие английского оборота переводится личной формой глагола, т.е. сказуемым придаточного предложения в том времени, в котором выражено сказуемое английского предложения.
Самостоятельный оборот имеет свое собственное, самостоятельное подлежащее (отсюда и название) и всегдаотделяется запятой (иногда тире или скобками). Самостоятельный причастный оборот чаще всего выражаетвремя, причину, условие или сопутствующие обстоятельства. В функции обстоятельства причины, времени, условия оборот стоит в начале предложения.       Переводитсяпридаточным обстоятельственным предложением, которое вводится союзами так как, поскольку, когда, после того как, хотя, если и др.
  а) В функции обстоятельства причины The book being written in simple English, it is suitable for beginners. Поскольку эта книга написана простым английским языком, она хороша для начинающих.
    The professor being ill, the lecture was put off. Так как профессор был болен, лекцию отложили. Perfect Participle всегда переводится прошедшим временем.
    The storm having ruined their house, they had to repair it. Так как ураган разрушил их дом, им пришлось его ремонтировать.
  б) В функции обстоятельства времени The experiment having been carried out, we had a short rest. После того как опыт был проведен, мы немного отдохнули.
  в) В функции обстоятельства условия Circumstances permitting, we shall start tomorrow. Если обстоятельства позволят, мы поедем завтра.
  В функции сопутствующих обстоятельств оборот стоит в конце предложения   Переводится самостоятельным предложением с сочинительными союзами а, но, и, причем или без союза.
    The students were writing a test, each doing their own variant. Студенты писали контрольную работу, причем каждый выполнял свой вариант.
Самостоятельный причастный оборот может вводитьсяпредлогом with или without, который не переводится   With + существительные + причастие,(запятая)   With something doing   (запятая может отсутствовать) Оборот равнозначен абсолютным причастным оборотам, выражающим сопутствующие обстоятельства или причину.   Переводится точно так же, как и независимый причастный оборот в начале предложения.
В функции причины стоит в начале предложения. With research involving more and more people, the profession of a scientist has become one of the most popular nowadays. По мере того как научное исследование требует участия все большего числа людей, профессия ученого становится одной из самых популярных в наши дни.
  В функции сопутствующих обстоятельств оборот стоит в конце предложения. Mathematization of science is witnessed in almost all branches, with specialists in humanities hurriedly joining the process. Математизация науки наблюдается во всех областях, и специалисты в области гуманитарных наук спешат включиться в этот процесс.
Самостоятельный причастный оборот может употребляться без причастия Наиболее характерное значение ‑ описание внешности, поведения или внутреннего состояния лица, обозначенного (представленного) подлежащим.    
1) с предлогом with With something … ,(запятая) В функции сопутствующих обстоятельств стоит в конце предложения.   I found him ready and waiting for me, with his stick in his hand. Переводится самостоятельным предложением или деепричастным оборотом. Он был готов и ожидал меня, в руке у него была палка.
2) без предлога(отделяется запятой) В функции обстоятельства времени   Breakfast over, he went to his office. Стоит в начале предложения, переводится придаточным обстоятельственным предложением времени. Когда кончили завтракать, он ушел в свой кабинет.
В функции сопутствующих обстоятельств     He went home alone, his heart full of strange emotions. Переводится самостоятельным предложением, деепричастным оборотом или существительным (местоимением) с предлогом «с». Он отправился домой один, душа его была переполнена странными чувствами.
Самостоятельный причастный оборот существительное+ Particple II, something done, встречается редко В функции обстоятельства времени   The work finished, we went home. Переводится придаточным обстоятельственным предложением. Когда работа была закончена, мы ушли домой.
Самостоятельный оборот может употребляться:      
а) с оборотом There is There + being + существительное (прилагательное), В функции обстоятельства причины There being no trams at that hour, we had to walk. Переводится точно так же, как и независимый причастный оборот в начале или в конце предложения. Так как в это время трамваи не ходили, нам пришлось идти пешком.
б) с формальным подлежащим It It + being …,   It being very cold, I decided to stay at home. Так как было очень холодно, я решил остаться дома.
             

 



Exercise 1. Study the form and the translation of the Absolute Participial Construction.
1. The day being warm, we opened the window. Так как день был теплым, мы открыли окно.  
2. She began to speak, with her voice trembling. Она начала говорить, её голос дрожал.  
3. We were waiting for him, with his bags in our hands. Мы его ожидали, в руках у нас были его сумки.  
4. He listened to her, standing at the fireplace, head bowed, motionless. Он слушал ее, стоя у камина неподвижно, склонив голову.  
5. The notes being written in German, we couldn’t understand them. Так как записи были сделаны на немецком языке, мы не могли их понять.  
6. Newton discovered the laws of motion, these laws being the basis of practical mechanics. Ньютон открыл законы движения, и эти законы легли в основу практической механики.  
7. The experiment over, we left the laboratory. Когда эксперимент был закончен, мы ушли из лаборатории.  
8. A knock had come to the door, and there being nobody to answer it, my mother went out. Послышался стук в дверь, и, так как больше некому было открыть, вышла моя мама.  
9. The duty completed, he had three mouths’ leave. Когда эта работа была закончена, он получил трехмесячный отпуск.  
10. The question being very difficult, no one could answer it. Так как вопрос был очень трудным, никто не смог на него ответить.  
11. All the other factors being equal, the video channel occupied by a three-colour television system must be three times as wide as that required for an equivalent black-and-white system. При прочих равных условиях видеоканал для трехцветной телевизионной системы должен быть в три раза шире, чем канал, необходимый для соответствующей черно-белой системы.  
12. Solid particles are injected into lower atmosphere from a number of sources, with combustion of fossil fuels making a major contribution. Плотные частицы вносятся в нижние слои атмосферы из разных источников, причем сгорание ископаемого топлива составляет значительную (большую) долю.  
       

 

Exercise 2. In the following sentences find the Absolute Participial Construction. Identify the subject of the construction and translate the sentences into Russian.
  1. Numerous experiments having been carried out at the orbital station, it became possible to develop new methods of industrial production of new materials.  
  2. The first steam engine built in the 17-th century, people began to use them in factories.  
  3. The inventor was demonstrating his new device, with the workers watching its operation attentively.  
  4. Many substances are semiconductors, germanium and silicon being the most important of them.  
  5. Transistors are very sensitive to light, some of them reacting even to starlight.  
  6. The cell being charged, a certain quantity of electricity is passed through it.  
  7. Marie Curie used deductive reasoning in order to proceed with her research, this kind of “detective work” being basic to the methodology of science.  
  8. Fundamental and applied sciences are commonly distinguished, the former being concerned with fundamental laws of nature, the latter engaged in application of the knowledge obtained.  
  9. Some scientists do not distinguish between pure and applied mathematics, the distinction being, in fact, of recent origin.  
  10. Nanomaterials are typically between 0.1 and 100 nanometers (nm) in size – with 1 nm being equivalent to one billionth of a metre.  
  12. At different stages of research the scientist would be interested in different questions, the “how’s” and “why’s” being most difficult to find answers to.  
         

 

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the sentences using the Absolute Participial Construction.
Model: When the experiment had been carried out they started new investigations.
  The experiment having been carried out, they started new investigations.
1. When the work had been completed, they had a rest.
2. After the true size of the Earth and the true distance to the Moon had been calculated, Newton solved the problem of universal gravitation.
3. When Becquerel had discovered radioactivity, scientists obtained a means of studying and explaining the structure of the atom.
4. When the boiling point has been reached, the temperature of the water cannot be increased any more.
5. After the model has been tested successfully, it can be recommended for mass production.
6. When vast masses of statistical evidence had been collected, Parkinson’s law was deduced from a study of these ideas.
7. If the positive pole has been brought near the negative pole, the latter attracts it.
8. After the new method had been studied in detail, it was introduced into our research.
9. When the traveled distance had been given in meters and the time in seconds, speed was measured in m.p.s., that is, in meters per second.
10. After the difficulties had been overcome, we went on making further experiments.
       

 

Exercise 4. Use the required form of the participles as parts of complex objects.  
1. I watched Prof. Brown __ down the path toward the other men (to hurry).
2. He was surprised to hear such words __ by the chairman (to utter).
3. I want a short abstract __ at once (to send).
4. I heard the foreman __ the worker what to do (instruct).
5. She left him __ everything in the laboratory (arrange).
6. I found the researchers __ the equipment for tests (prepare).
7. The student listened to the lecturer __ about the transistor design (speak).
8. The investigator has his laboratory equipment __ (repair).
9. All electrons may have their k-values __ systematically by the applied field (change).
10. We often have our old devices __ (service).
       

 

Exercise 5. Paraphrase the following so as to use a complex object.  
Model: He was explaining the phenomenon in terms of multiple reflections. I heard it. I heard him explaining the phenomenon in terms of multiple reflections.
1. They were discussing successful results of the experiments. I heard it.  
2. The first series of experiments were completed. We found it.  
3. She was speaking on the subject of high radiation intensity. We heard it.  
4. They were doing the experiment. He watched it.  
5. The new technological processes were greatly changed. He found it.  
6. Listen, our new device is making so much noise. Can you hear?  
7. The lecturer was describing Rutherford’s theory. We heard it.  
8. The methods of measurements differed greatly from the old ones. He found it.  
           

 

Exercise 6. Reorder these jumbled sentences to make sense.  
1. He, did, have, his, device, tested?
2. Has, Tommy, his, experiment, by, done, his, assistant.
3. He, having, is, typed, the, report, his, secretary, by.
4. Tony, the, unit, had, fixed.
5. When, you, have, will, new, your, equipment, installed?
6. Bruce, have, his, devices, may, repaired.
7. Had, I’ve, whole, report, the, rewritten.
8. Having, she’s, her, assistant, colleagues, taught, computer science.
9. Can’t, have, you, the, apparatus, repaired?
10. Should, you, have, a, installed, telephone.
       

 

Exercise 7. Match the following English sentences and the translation.

A.

1. He watched the temperature gradually rising.
2. We disliked the theory of relativity being treated in this way.
3. We consider matter as being built of atoms.
4. The laboratory head found them testing new gadgets.
5. By whom did you have your apparatus installed?
6. The investigator heard his name mentioned in this connection.
7. We know the problem of working principles of lasers having been solved long ago.
8. We know him working at the problem of inductive logic since 1986.
9. We know the researchers being invited to all our meetings.
10. They thought of the reaction as being of the first order.

 

B.

1. Нам не нравилось, что теория относительности трактовалась таким образом.
2. Он следил (за тем), как постепенно повышалась температура.
3. Заведующий лабораторией обнаружил, что они испытывали новые устройства.
4. Мы считаем, что материя состоит из атомов.
5. Кто установил тебе аппаратуру?
6. Исследователь слышал, как в связи с этим упоминалось его имя.
7. Мы знаем, что проблему принципов работы лазеров уже давно решили.
8. Мы знаем, что исследователи приглашаются (их приглашают) на все наши собрания.
9. Мы знаем, что он работает над проблемой индуктивной логики с 1986 г.
10. Они считали, что реакция была первого порядка.

 

Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into Russian.  
1. We observe the experimenter testing his equipment.
2. The researcher has just had his paper published.
3. Mr. Brown watched his colleague conducting the research in the laboratory.
4. The majority of atoms have all their electrons shared.
5. I found the chief engineer gone.
6. Bohr recognized the substance as having a condensed-ring system.
7. They have their equipment tested every month.
8. We consider each hydrogen atom as having a unit positive charge.
9. We may think of this molecule as being just like one of benzene.
10. They got the design reexamined.
11. We have the device repaired.
12. We have the program debugged.
       

 

Exercise 9. Use the required form of the participles as parts of complex subjects.  
1. This phenomenon is postulated as __ from excessive heating. (arise)
2. The class of regulators can be thought of as __ of three parts. (compose)
3. The problem was recognized by many scientist as __ of great importance(be).
4. The plant is found __ in the East Indies (grow).
5. This data set should intuitively be considered as __ of two clusters (consist).
6. The reaction may be written as __ by the following mechanism (proceed).
7. The results were interpreted by Arnauch as __ to the formula mentioned (point).
8. This method was mentioned as __ good results (afford).
9. Active centres are not to be envisaged as __ fixed positions on the surface (occupying).
10. Only those substances can be considered as __ mixtures (be).
       

 

Exercise 10. Paraphrase the following so as to use a complex subject.

 

Model: We heard a typewriter clattering in the next room.
  A typewriter was heard clattering in the next room.

 

1. We observed the experimenter testing his equipment.
2. We watched them completing the experiment.
3. I heard him explaining the phenomenon in terms of multiple reflections.
4. We found the first series of experiments completed.
5. We noticed them examining a source of white light.
6. We watched the researcher testing the heated gas under very high pressure.
7. We saw them demonstrating the gadget operating.
8. We heard the investigator explaining differences and similarities between the two phenomena.
9. We found the researchers examining spectra-analytical method.

 

Exercise 11. Reorder these jumbled sentences to make sense.
1. You, packing, should, new, see, devices, them, the.
2. I, them, this, heard, problem, discussing.
3. We, definitions, all, made, found.
4. I, him, the, saw, device, checking.
5. We, finishing, the, found, them, measurement.
6. We, the, measurements, found, completed.
7. We, the, found, changed, frequency.
8. You, feel, temperature, can, the, rising.
9. You, see, can, сhanged, the, value.
10. We, the, could, operating, hear, machine, properly.
     

 

Exercise 12. Match the English sentences and the translation.

A.

1. Protons were observed leaving various elements.
2. Every day he could be seen working in the laboratory.
3. The lecturer was heard mentioning his name.
4. The problem of constructing heterostructure lasers is known having been solved long ago.
5. The scientists are heard discussing this proposal thoroughly.
6. Pr. Brown was heard delivering a lecture on elementary particles.
7. Concrete parts were seen being fabricated at the works.
8. He was found measuring the substance density.
9. The monitor was seen indicating computer failure.
10. Our colleague was heard proving his new theory.

 

B.

1. Каждый день его можно было видеть за работой в лаборатории.
2. Было слышно, как лектор упоминал его имя.
3. Известно, что проблему создания лазеров на гетеростуктуре давно решили.
4. Было слышно, как профессор Браун читает лекцию по элементарным частицам.
5. Слышно, что ученые тщательно обсуждают эту проблему.
6. Обнаружили, что он измеряет плотность вещества.
7. Было видно, как бетонные блоки изготавливались на заводе.
8. Было видно, как монитор указывал на сбои вычислительной машины.
9. Было слышно, как наш коллега доказывает свою новую теорию.
10. Наблюдали, как протоны вылетают из различных элементов.

 

Exercise 13. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. A quadratic cost function is assumed established for the system.
2. The permanent income is often taken as having been established.
3. The problem can be thought of as being a multivariable generalization of the classical problem.
4. The engineer was seen writing a full report on the work of the commission.
5. The engines were seen being carefully tested in the laboratory.
6. The laboratory assistant was seen examining pulse ionization chambers.
7. The researcher was found studying the phenomenon of vibration.
8. The lecturer was heard discussing possibility of electronic interband transition.
9. The investigator was found measuring distance-velocity dependence.
10. This theory is postulated as having arisen from experimental data.
     

 

Exercise 14. Match the English sentences and the translation.

A.

1. The door and the window of the vacant room being open, we looked in.
2. It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs.
3. There he stood, his face to the south-east – his cap in his hand.
4. George rose and strolled out of the lawn, all his dogs following him.
5. There being no vacant seats, I had to stand.
6. The article being ready, I’ll show it to you.
7. With the temperature falling rapidly and the wind getting stronger, we were not able to carry on our research.
8. The text was not difficult, many words having been learned before.
9. He turned and went, we, as before, following him.
10. She sat silent and still, with her eyes fixed on the ground.
11. I lay idly in a big chair, talking now and then, listening; listening sometimes with my eyes closed.
12. All things considered, there is little hope of their help.

 

B.

1. Джордж поднялся и ушел с лужайки, и все его собаки последовали за ним.
2. Она сидела молча и неподвижно, опустив глаза в землю.
3. Так как дверь и окно пустой комнаты были открыты, мы заглянули в нее.
4. Я сидел лениво развалившись в большом кресле, время от времени вступая в разговор, слушая, порой слушая с закрытыми глазами.
5. Так как было довольно поздно, мы взяли свечи и пошли наверх.
6. Так как не было свободных мест, мне пришлось стоять.
7. Приняв всё во внимание (учитывая всё), на их помощь мало надежды.
8. Так как температура быстро падала и ветер усиливался, мы не могли проводить исследования.
9. Текст не был труден, так как многие слова были выучены заранее.
10. Он повернулся и вышел; как и прежде, мы последовали за ним.
11. Он стоял повернувшись к юго-востоку, с шапкой в руке.
12. Когда статья будет готова, я покажу ее вам.

 

Exercise 15. Make up sentences using the following phrases as Nominative Absolute Constructions.

There being no time to lose; the concert over; it being late; with his eyes wide open; such being the case; there being nothing else to do; with his back towards the door; their being a severe storm at sea; without a word spoken; all things considered; it being the weekend.

 

Exercise 16. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. Her aunt having left the room, I asked her for some personal help.  
2. With the mortgage paid, they could afford to go abroad for their vacation.  
3. There being no further business, the meeting was adjourned.  
4. She walked on, with her eyes straight ahead.  
5. It being very cold, we couldn’t go for a swim.  
6. The sun having risen, they continued their way.  
7. There being no other traffic, the driver can maintain a constant speed of, say, 60 km/h (kilometers per hour).  
8. The pressure removed, the air springs back to its original volume.  
9. When considered dynamically, the biosphere appears an arena of complex interactions among the essential natural cycles of its major constituents, with continuous fluxes of these constituents entering the biosphere, or being released by it.  
10. She stood with her arms folded, staring thoughtfully.  
11. Then arrangements made, the apologies and thanks started over again.  
12. She advanced two more strides and waited, head half turned.  
13. The choice made, she ran up to him.  
14. All things considered, there is only one way out of this confused situation.  
       

Раздел 7. Герундий
(Gerund)

Герундий – неличная форма глагола, выражающая действие как процесс и обладающая свойствами как существительного, так и глагола:

 

increasing – увеличение;
obtaining – получение;
heating – нагревание.

Формы герундия

 



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