Сделай Сам Свою Работу на 5

Compound sentences with different subjects and with «so / for».

 

Model: The taxi stopped at the station. Two men got out of it. (and)
The taxi stopped at the station and two men got out of it.

 

1. You can give some advice. Your colleague can. (either you … or)
2. The old lady was nervous. She wasn’t used to strangers calling late at night. (for)
3. The telephone connects you to a person directly. Your question will be answered immediately. (and)
4. I like ice-cream. Michael doesn’t like sweet things. (but)
5. The alarm-clock rang. I had to get up. (and)

 

 

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with noun clauses (or that-clauses) as subject of a sentence (sentences with noun clause subjects usually begin with it).

 

Model: He feels angry. It’s not surprising. – It’s not surprising (that) he feels angry.

 

1. She has resigned from her job. It’s a shame ….
2. There are no lights on. It’s strange ….
3. You were insured. It’s a good thing ….
4. You’ve passed your exam. It’s splendid ….
5. They didn’t get married. It’s a great pity ….
6. Everybody should know what to do. It is essential ….

 

Exercise 3. In the following complex sentences find subject clause, predicate clause, object clause. Translate them into Russian. (Обратите внимание, что: а) в придаточных предложениях подлежащих, сказуемых и дополнительных, которые вводятся словами whose, who, what, when, how, why и т.п., всегда употребляется порядок слов повествовательного предложения в отличие от самостоятельных вопросительных предложений; б) союз that в object clauses часто опускается).

 

1. Do you know how a four-cycle diesel works?
2. When heating gases we find they act in exactly the same way as liquids.
3. The question is whether they will arrive in time to take part in this work.
4. The doctor’s advice was that my sister should go to the South immediately.
5. That the matter should have taken such a turn is not surprising.
6. The laboratory assistant said he would demonstrate a linear amplifier.
7. He isn’t what he pretends to be.

 

Exercise 4. Join these sentences using who or which(all of them will also join with that).

 

Model: He’s an accountant. He does my accounts. He’s my accountant who does my accounts.

 

1. She’s the nurse. She looked after me.
2. That’s the magazine. It arrived this morning.
3. I read books. I borrow them from library.
4. There are some infinite numbers. They are larger than any number we can possibly write no matter how long we work.
5. I met Professor Smith. He’s Tom’s supervisor.

 

Exercise 5. Join these sentences with one of the conjunctions in brackets.

 

Model: I lost a lot of weight. I was ill. (when) I lost a lot of weight when I was ill.

 

1. I phoned home. I arrived at the airport building. (immediately after)
2. We instructed our London office to prepare the goods for shipment. We received your telegram. (as soon as)
3. I reached my house. It started raining. (by the time)
4. Fast neutrons can penetrate any material and must be slowed down. They can be absorbed. (before)
5. She pressed the button. The lift stopped. (when)

 



Exercise 6. Join these sentences with the conjunctions to say why. More than one order is possible.

 

Model: Service in this hotel ought to improve. There’s been a change of management. (because) – Service in this hotel ought to improve because there’s been a change of management.

 

1. Could you sell your old computer to me? You have no further use for it. (as)
2. You don’t like Bill. Why did you invite him? (seeing that)
3. You are here. You can as well give me a hand. (since)
4. The soup was very salty. We were thirsty afterwards. (as)
5. It was too dark to go on. We camped there. (as/because/since)
6. Tom knows French. He’d better do the talking. (as/since/seeing that)

 

Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences to say where.

 

Model: This is the exact spot where the accident happened.

 

1. Some television programs are familiar everywhere __.
2. I like to spend my leave where __.
3. He went where __.
4. The house stands where __.
5. She was welcome where __.  

 

Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences to say how. Use conjunction as –как, as if (as though) – как будто, как если бы, that – что, so that (so) – так что.

 

Model: It sounds as if it’s raining.
1. You never do anything the way __.
2. He went to the lecture early __.
3. She sat behind me __.
4. The weather was so bad __.
     

Правило согласования времен

(Sequence of Tenses)

 

Правило согласования времен обычно действует в сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточными предложениями следующих типов: дополнительных придаточных предложениях– Object Clauses, придаточных предложениях времени – Time Clauses, цели – Purpose Clauses, следствия – Result Clauses, условных предложениях первого типа – Conditional Clause – Type I).

Правило согласования времен в английском языке представляет определённую зависимость времени глагола в придаточном предложении от времени глагола в главном предложении.

Основные положения правила согласования времен сводятся к следующему:

1. Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в настоящем или будущем времени, то сказуемое придаточного предложения может стоять в любом, требуемом по смыслу времени.

 

  I am busy. я занят.
He knows (that) Он знает, что I was busy yesterday. я был занят вчера.
  I willbe busy. я буду занят.

 

2. Если же сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени, то сказуемое придаточного предложения должно стоять в одном из прошедших времен (Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Conditional (Future in the Past).

Когда действия, выраженные сказуемыми обоих предложений, происходят одновременно, то в придаточном предложении сказуемое употребляется в Past Simple или Past Continuous, которые на русский язык обычно переводятся настоящим временем.

 

He said (that) our prices were high. Он сказал, что наши цены высокие.

 

Если действие, выраженное сказуемым придаточного предложения, предшествовало действию главного предложения, то в придаточном предложении употребляется Past Perfect или Past Perfect Continuous, которые переводятся прошедшим временем.

 

Не said that he had signed the contract. Он сказал, что подписал контракт.

 

Если в придаточном предложении речь идет о будущем, то употребляются формы Conditional (Future in the Past).

 

He said that business would improve. Он сказал, что бизнес улучшится.

 

Sequence of Tenses
He lives in New York. I thought (that) he lived in New York. Одновременное действие Я думал, (что) он живет в Нью-Йорке.
My mother is sleeping. I knew that my mother was sleeping. Одновременное действие Я знал, что моя мама спит.
He has returned from London. I was told that he had returned from London. Предшествующее действие Мне сказали, что он вернулся из Лондона.
He bought a new car. I heard that he had bought a new car. Предшествующее действие Я слышал, (что) он купил новую машину.
He will send us a letter. I supposed that he would send us a letter. Последующее действие Я полагал, что он пришлет нам письмо.

 

Правило согласования времен действует также при переходе из прямой речи в косвенную речь, если глагол вводящий косвенную речь употребляется в одном из прошедших времен.

Прямая и косвенная речь

(Direct and Indirect / Reported Speech)

Речь, которая передает подлинные слова какого-либо лица, называется прямой речью (Direct Speech).

Речь, передаваемая не слово в слово, а только по содержанию, в виде придаточных предложений, называется косвенной речью (Indirect Speech / Report speech):

 

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
He has said: “The ship will arrive at the end of the week”. He has said that the ship will arrive at the end of the week.
Он сказал: «Пароход прибудет в конце недели». Он сказал, что пароход прибудет в конце недели.
The date of the next meeting hasn’t been fixed yet”, she mentioned. She mentioned that the date of the next meeting hadn’t been fixed yet.
«Дата следующего собрания не установлена», упомянула она. Она упомянула, что дата следующего собрания еще не установлена
Calculate the profits for the first year”, he said. He told them to calculate the profits for the first year.
«Рассчитайте прибыль за первый год», сказал он. Он велел им рассчитать прибыль на следующий год.

 

Глаголы say, tell, ask

Глагол to say используется в прямой речи. Он также используется в косвенной речи, когда за ним не следует дополнение, указывающее на лицо, к которому обращаются с речью. Если же после to say имеется такое дополнение, то to say заменяется глаголом to tell. To ask используется в прямых вопросах, а также в косвенных вопросах и командах:

 

Прямая речь Косвенная речь
“I can fix it,” he said. He said he could fix it.
“I can do it,” he said to me. He told me he could do it.
He asked, “Are you OK?” He asked me if I was OK.
He said to me, “Please, don’t go!” He asked me not to go.

 

Выражения с say say good morning/evening, etc., say something, say one’s prayers, say a few words, say so, say no more, say for certain, etc.
Выражения с tell tell the truth, tell a lie, tell (somebody) the time, tell somebody one’s name, tell a story, tell a secret, tell somebody the way, tell one from another, tell somebody’s fortune, tell somebody so, tell the difference, etc.
Выражения с ask ask a favour, ask the time, ask a question, ask the price, etc.

 

Прямая речь (Direct Speech) может представлять собой:

 

1) повествовательное предложение (Declarative Sentence / Statement);
2) вопросительное предложение (Interrogative Sentence);
3) повелительное предложение (Imperative Sentence);
4) восклицательное предложение (Exclamatory Sentence).

 

Косвенная речь (Indirect /Reported Speech) принимает две формы:

1. Главное предложение с глаголом говорения + придаточное предложение:
  They say that we will receive the confirmation next week.
2. Главное предложение с глаголом говорения + инфинитив с «to» / Gerund(Герундий):
  They asked us to send confirmation as soon as possible
  He apologized for hurting me.

 

При изменении прямой речи в косвенную образуются придаточные предложения (см. выше), где и будет действовать согласование времен (Sequence of Tenses).

Времена сказуемых простых предложений (statements), передаваемых в косвенной речи, обычно изменяются следующим образом:

 

Direct Speech   Indirect / Reported Speech
Present Simple Ilike music. Past Simple He said he liked music.
Present Continuous Is it raining? Past Continuous He asked if it was raining.
Present Perfect She has never been there. Have you ever been there? Past Perfect He said she had never been there. He asked me if I had been there.
Present Perfect Continuous I’vebeen waiting for ages. Past Perfect Continuous He said he had been waiting for ages.
Past Simple He didn’t recognize me. Past Perfect He said he hadn’t recognized me.
Past Perfect We hadn’t met him before that day. Past Perfect They said they hadn’t met him.
Future They will be late. Conditional (Future in the Past) I was afraid they would be late.
can / may Ican swim. Itmay snow. could, might He thought he could swim. They hoped it might snow.
would, could, might, ought to, should You could/might be wrong. would, could, might, ought to, should He thought I could/might be wrong.
must Wemust go. must/had to He said they must go. He said they had to go.
Conditional I would/should liketo see it.   Conditional I said I would/should liketo see it.

Общий вопрос присоединяется к главному предложению союзами ifили whether, специальные вопросы присоединяются к главному предложению с помощью того вопросительного слова, которое было в вопросе в прямой речи. Помните, что в таких придаточных предложениях будет порядок слов повествовательного предложения (declarative sentence), т.е. прямой.

 

Косвенные вопросы

(Indirect Questions)

 

Special Questions He asked (me) ‑ Он спросил (меня) He wanted to know ‑ Он хотел знать He wondered ‑ Он поинтересовался
“Where do you live?” “Where does he work?” “What is Nick doing?” “What haveyou prepared for today?” “When did you come home yesterday?” “When will your mother come home?” where I lived. where he worked. what Nick was doing. what I had prepared for that day. when I had come home the day before. when my mother would comehome.
General Questions He asked (me) He wanted to know He wondered
“Do you play chess?” “Does she go to school?” “Are you listening to me?” “Have you done your homework?”   “Did you skate last winter?” if whether I played chess. she went to school. I was listening to him. I had done my homework (before). I had skated the winter before.  

 

Повелительное наклонение заменяется в косвенной речи инфинитивом. Отрицательная форма повелительного наклонения заменяется инфинитивом с not:

 

He Он asked попросил me мне to do it. сделать это.
ordered приказал
told велел not to do it. не делать этого.
advised посоветовал

 

Времена не изменяются в косвенной речи (Indirect / Reported Speech), когда:
a) говорящий выражает общеизвестные факты, постоянные состояния или условия. “Water turnsinto ice”, he said. → He said water turnsinto ice.
b) говорящий передает только что сказанную информацию. “I will call you back”, he said. → He said he will call me back. (пересказано сразу же) → He said he would call me back. (информация передается позже)
♦ Если говорящий передает информацию, которая, как полагают, верна, то время в придаточном предложении может измениться или остаться тем же. Но если передаваемая информация неверная, то время в придаточном предложении обязательно изменяется. “She likes this cell phone”, he said (верно) → He said she likes / liked this phone. “Canada isa poor country”, he said. (неверно) → He said Canada was a poor country.
♦ The Past Simple изменяется в the Past Perfect или может оставаться без изменения. “I wasearly for the meeting”, she said. → She said she was / had been early for the meeting.
♦ The Past Perfect и the Past Continuous обычно остаются без изменения в косвенной речи. “I was watching TV while Ann was reading a book”. → He said he was watching TV while Ann was reading a book.
♦ Времена не изменяются, если передаваемая в косвенной речи информация содержит нереальное действие в прошлом, условные предложения типа 2/типа 3 или предложения с wish. “It’s time we went”, he said.→ He said it was time they went. “If we paid our workers better, we would become a popular employer”, he said.→ He said that if we paid our workers better, we would become a popular employer.
♦ Глагол might (would в утверждениях) в косвенной речи не изменяется кроме случаев, когда он употребляется для выражения просьбы: He said, “Ann might ring him. → He said that she might ring. (that day) Но: “You might post these for me”, he said. → He asked me to post them for him. Глаголы ought to, should в значении обязательности или предположения (obligation or assumption) в косвенной речи не изменяются: “They ought to / should widen this road”, I said. → I said that they ought to / should widen this road. I said, “I should be back by six”. (т.е. я полагаю) → I said I should be back by six. Но если эти глаголы (а также must) употребляются в значении совета (а не обязанности), то в косвенной речи их можно передать глаголом advise+ object+ infinitive: “You ought to / should / must read the instructions”, said Ann. → Ann advised / warned me to read the instructions.
♦ При передачи прямой речи в косвенную личные местоимения в именительном и притяжательном падежах изменяются согласно контексту. “I will show you my new PC”, she said. → She said she would show me her new PC.

 

Некоторые указательные местоимения и наречия времени, места в косвенной речи изменяются в зависимости от контекста:

 

Direct Speech Reported Speech
this, these that, those, the
now then, at that time, at once, immediately
here there
tonight, today that night, that day
yesterday the day before
last night/week/month/year the previous night/week/month/year a night/week/month/year before
the day before yesterday two days before
tomorrow the next day/the following day
the day after tomorrow in two days’ time/two days later
next week/month/year
ago before

 

Следует, однако, иметь в виду, что такую замену нельзя производить механически, а только в тех случаях, когда этого требует ситуация, при которой передаётся косвенная речь:

1. He said, “My brother works here”. Он сказал: “Мой брат работает здесь”.

При обращении в косвенную речь следует сохранить here, если косвенная речь передаётся в том же месте, где работает брат.

He said that his brother works here. Он сказал, что его брат работает здесь.

2. He said, “I saw her yesterday”. Он сказал: “Я видел её вчера”.

Если косвенная речь передаётся в тот же день, когда была произнесена прямая речь, то в косвенной речи сохраняется yesterday:

He said that he saw her yesterday. Он сказал, что (он) видел её вчера.

Если же косвенная речь передаётся на следующий день или позже, то yesterdayзаменяется наthe day before.

Introductory verbs

(глаголы, вводящие косвенную речь)

 

Introductory verbs Direct speech Reported speech
agree+to-inf offer promise refuse threaten “Yes, I’ll help you.” “Shall I open the door?” “Of course I’ll pay you.” “No, I won’t go with you.” “Stop crying or I’ll punish you.” He agreed to help me. He offered to open the door. He promised to pay me. He refused to go with us. He threatened to punish me if I didn’t stop crying.
Advise+sb+to–inf ask beg command   invite order remind warn “You should see a lawyer.” “Could you help me?” “Please, please don’t hurt her!” “Stand to attention!”   “Will you have dinner with me?” “Leave the cat alone!” “Don’t forget to ring Ann.” “Don’t go near the rocks.” He advised me to see a lawyer. He asked meto helphim. He begged me not to hurther. He commandedthe soldiersto stand to attention. He invited me to(have) dinner with him. Sheordered me to leave the cat alone. Sheremindedmeto ringAnn. He warnedmenot to gonear the rocks.
admit + gerund   accuse sb of   apologise for   boast of/about complain to sb of deny insist on   suggest “Yes, I told her the secret.”   “You took the money.”   “I’m sorry I arrived so late.”   “I’m the fastest of all.” “I have a toothache.” “I didn’t take the book.” “You must come with us.”   “Let’s have a party.” He admitted(to)telling/having told her the secret. He accused me of taking/having taken the money. He apologized for arriving/having arrived so late. He boasted of/about beingthe fastest of all. He complained to me of having a toothache. He denied taking/having taken the book. He insisted on me/my going with them.   He suggested havinga party.
agree + that-clause complain   deny explain exclaim/remark   promise suggest “Yes, it’s a big house.”   “You’re always lying to me.”   ”I didn’t take that book” “That’s why I didn’t take it.” “What a sunny day it is!”   “Of course I’ll help you.” “You’d better see a doctor.” He agreed thatit was a big house.   Hecomplained that I was always lying to him. He denied that he had taken the book. He explained to me why he hadn’t taken it. He exclaimed/remarked that it was a sunny day. He promised that he would help me. He suggested that I (should) see a doctor.
Note: admit, advise, boast, insist, threaten, warn, remind can also be followed by a that-clause in Reported speech.

 

Practice

Exercise 1. Change direct speech into indirect (with declarative sentences).
1. He has just said, “I want to speak to you”.  
2. He has said, “We have finished our work”.  
3. He will say, “I will do it at once”.  
4. He said, “This task is very difficult”.  
5. He said to her, “I met him last month”.  
6. He said, “He is going to St. Petersburg tomorrow”.  
7. He said to me, “I have never been here before”.  
8. I said, “I was ill yesterday”.  
9. He said to them, “She will be here in half an hour”.  
       

 

Exercise 2. Change direct speech into indirect (with interrogative sentences).
1. He has just asked me, “Who will come to the concert-hall with me?”  
2. He has asked me, “Will you be at home tonight?”  
3. He has just asked me, “Is it time to go?”  
4. He asked me, “Where are you going?”  
5. She asked me, “Does he always come so early?”  
6. He asked her. “How did you do that?”  
7. He asked me, “Is it raining?”  
8. She asked him, “Have the children returned from school?”  
9. He asked me, “How old are you?”  
       

 

Exercise 3. Change direct speech into indirect (with imperative sentences).  
1. I said to him, “Please open the door”.
2. I said to her, “Copy this text”.
3. I said to him, “Please don’t be angry”.
4. He said to me, “Don’t wait for me”.
5. She said to me, “Don’t be late”.
6. He said to me, “Please send her the postcard”.
7. He said to the secretary, “Bring me the fax we have received this morning”.
       

 

 


Раздел 2. Словообразование
(Word-building)

В английском языке имеется несколько способов словообразования:



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