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Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. The voice of the chief engineer was __ and as always __.
2. The effect of the researcher’s words was __.
3. Can’t you fix that dripping tap? It’s getting on my nerves – it’s really __.
4. Environmentalists think that the destruction of the rainforests is __.
5. People who drop litter are __.
6. People who like computer games are really __.
7. We agree that the results of his investigation of a strong electromagnetic field are __.
8. Career of a scientist can be __.


Exercise 3. Change the sentences using Present Participle or Past Participle attributively.
Model: That man is a master student (he is talking to Prof. Smith).  
  The man talking to Prof. Smith is a master student.  


1. The researcher works at our laboratory. He is testing the model.
2. The investigator doesn’t use a dictionary (he is reading the article).
3. The scientist lived in London for a year (he was training to be a highly qualified specialist).
4. The students waited at their desks (they felt nervous).
5. The lecturer gave out the questions (she told the students not to open the booklet).
6. The students opened the test booklets (they looked anxiously for the easiest questions).
7. The scientist works in our lab (she is making a speech).
8. The man is a famous scientist (he asks about the experiment).
9. The phenomena are thoroughly investigated (they occur during solar flares).


Exercise 4. Use the participles given in brackets as attributes (asking, realizing, joining, working, walking, doing, helping, standing).
1. He had left a note on the table __ them to come.
2. Some problems can be solved only by the world scientists __ their efforts.
3. The original idea of a discovery is often the product of one man __ in a group environment.
4. The snobs at the institute could not tolerate electrical engineers __ around with their dirty hands and spoiling the purity of the scientific atmosphere.
5. This is achieved by the lecturer __ research between lectures and other duties.
6. The apparatus __ on the table in the corner of the laboratory is quite new.
7. The young man __ the professor in his experiment studies at the university.
8. Such problems can be solved only by a scientist fully __ the possible danger.


Exercise 5. Use the participles given in brackets as attributes:(written, attended, affected, followed, enjoyed, agreed upon, formulated, referred to, thought of).
1. This guide, __ especially for students of English as a foreign language, demonstrates the basic sentence patterns of contemporary English.
2. The plants __ by the cold produced low crops.
3. The conference __ by scientists from different countries discussed new trends and methods in this field of research.
4. One of the rights __ by University scientists is that of combining research with teaching.
5. The discovery __ by further experimental work stimulated research in this area.
6. Mathematics, mechanics, statics and geometrical optics __ as classical disciplines started mathematical traditions in the history of natural science.
7. The heads of the laboratories were asked questions __ and __ by a group of sociologists.
8. The physicists showed that particles __ as “elementary” were in fact “non-elementary”.


Exercise 6. Make one sentence from two using an -ing clause.
Model: The investigators had no experience. They couldn’t conduct the experiment. The investigators couldn’t conduct the experiment having no experience.


1. Electronic computers perform both arithmetic and logic operations. They make it possible to control the process under rather complicated conditions.
2. Mercury (Hg) has a great specific gravity. It is used in barometers.
3. My colleague participated in the scientific conference. He was awarded a diploma.
4. People struggle for peace. They want to live without the danger of war.
5. The researcher saw his colleague. He raised his hand to attract his attention.
6. The laboratory assistant was tired. He couldn’t join us.
7. The head of the laboratory was charged with an important task. He thought about it.
8. Water has a high heat transfer coefficient and a high heat capacity. It is the most efficient agent.


Exercise 7. Make sentences beginning with Having __.  
Model: The laboratory assistant finished her work. Then the laboratory assistant went home. – Having finished her work the laboratory assistant went home.
1. The researcher learnt it. Then he changed the schedule of experiments.
2. The scientists increased the rate of the reaction. Then they achieved unexpected results.
3. The workers finished the operation of welding. Then they began assembling devices.
4. The investigator changed the program. Then he began to perform a new operation.
5. Ice was warmed to 0° (zero). Then it began to melt.
6. They developed a new type of robot. Then they felt quite satisfied.
7. We evaluated the data. Then we turned to their interpretation.
8. We gave an indication of the methods used in this type of analysis. Then we mentioned some of the earlier results.


Exercise 8. Make sentences beginning with -ing or not -ing. Sometimes you need to begin with having done (something).
Model: I felt tired. So I went to bed early. – Feeling tired, I went to bed early.
1. She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country __.  
2. The Curies investigated the mysterious uranium rays. – They encountered great difficulties.  
3. The scientist recognizes a problem. He makes the first step to its solution.  
4. Becquerel had reported of his discovery of rays of unknown nature. – He excited the curiosity of Marie Curie.  
5. You are students of science. – You are probably sometimes puzzled by the terms “pure” and “applied” science.  
6. The scientists had used modern installations and techniques. – They succeeded in solving a complicated engineering problem.  
7. The physicist realized the necessity for a different approach. – He abandoned the project.  
8. Mathematics is independent of all observations of the outside world. – It attempts to build logical systems based on axioms.  
9. The present work is essentially a study of radio communication. ‑ Nevertheless, it does provide an overall picture of general communication behaviour.  
10. He didn’t know the language and he had no friends. – He found it hard to get a job.  


Exercise 9. Change the sentences using Past Participle as an adverbial modifier. Translate the sentences into Russian.  
Model: When a body is heated, it usually expands. – When heated, a body usually expands.  
1. If these raw materials are properly treated, they can provide us with all necessary substances.
2. Though this formula is generally criticized, yet it does describe the essential characteristics of the process.
3. An electronic computer forms an impressive complex device when it is viewed as a whole.
4. When these theories (hypotheses, models) are sufficiently validated, they become the working laws or principles of science.
5. Though the hypothesis of the Continental Drift was first presented to scientific community in 1912, it was not until 50 years later that it gained general curiosity.
6. Unless the pressure is otherwise stated, it is atmospheric.
7. When the biosphere is viewed as a terrestrial envelope, it obviously has somewhat irregular shape.
8. A body at rest remains at rest unless it is acted upon by an external force.
9. Once the process is started, it is difficult to stop.
10. If metal, glass, paper, fabrics and the like are properly cycled, they will provide raw materials for different industries.
11. If the elements are arranged according to their atomic weights, they exhibit an evident periodicity of properties.


Exercise 10. Use the participles given in brackets as parts of complex objects (burning, standing, smiling at me, beating wildly, boiling, reading “The Moon and Sixpence”, gathering, opening, whispering, playing chess)
1. I looked up to see my mother …  
2. He glanced up to see the door slowly …  
3. He awoke to smell something …  
4. He arrived to find me …  
5. I came up to the stove to see the milk …  
6. One night she awakened to hear somebody …  
7. We looked into the window to see them …  
8. They turned to notice Jack …  
9. He woke up to feel his heart …  
10. We looked out of the window to see …  

Причастный оборот Have + object + Past Participle (Participle II)


Оборот Значение Пример Перевод
Have + object+ Past Participle Have something done Означает, что действие, выраженное сказуемым, т.е. глаголом to have и Past Participle, совершает несамо лицо (подлежащие), а кто-то другой для него. Глагол to have имеет значение «заставлять», «сделать так, чтобы»   I have had my watch repaired.     We have the device repaired. На русский язык оборот может переводиться так же, как глагол в перфектной форме. Я починил часы. (кто-то другой починил часы по моей просьбе). Нам уже починили прибор (мы этого добились).
Get + object+ Past Participle Get something done 1. Можно употреблять вместо have something done (главным образом в разговорной речи). 2. В некоторых случаях вместо глагола have используется глагол get в значении «добиваться». В этом значении может употребляться глагол make. I think you should get your hair cut.   We got the device repaired.   You must make yourself respected. Я думаю, тебе надо постричься.   Нам (все же) починили прибор (мы этого добились).     Вы должны сделать так (добиться того), чтобы вас уважали.


Exercise 11. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. Jill had the roof repaired yesterday.
2. Where did you have your hair done?
3. We are having the house painted at the moment.
4. Tom has just had a telephone installed in his flat.
5. How often do you have your car serviced?
6. Why don’t you have that coat cleaned?
7. I want to have my photo taken.


Exercise 12. Use the participles given in brackets as parts of complex objects (known, extended, printed, changed, heard, finished, represented, kept, left)
1. Can we have the programme __?  
2. They had the problem __ out of their research.  
3. Where did you get your (visiting) cards __?  
4. You must make your news __.  
5. They had the range of observations __.  
6. I had this work __ quickly.  
7. We had our research group __ at the symposium.  
8. They had the discussion __ within reasonable limits.  
9. He couldn’t make his voice __.  


Exercise 13. State the forms and functions of the participles. Translate the sentences into Russian.  
1. The amazing thing about the whole situation was that they were able to live for a long time without water.
2. Having been asked to lecture in Moscow he was unable to be present at the meeting.
3. You should have your eyes tested.
4. Shocked by the poverty of my own vocabulary, I went to the British Museum.
5. All these threatening changes in our environment are brought (about) by no one but man himself.
6. Given sufficient densities, the radio wave curves and is finally reflected from the gas layer.
7. Let me know what you would like done.
8. Having been given all the necessary information he got down to work.
9. A fascinating by-product of space exploration is turning science fiction into science fact.
10. I don’t intend to have my professional reputation compromised.
11. Once brought into being by evolution from an inorganic environment, the living matter has profoundly altered the primitive lifeless earth.
12. Having been sent to the wrong address the letter didn’t reach him.
13. Being asked when they could expect an answer he said it would take them about a week.
14. They believed that they could get their candidate elected.
15. Having been tested in operation the new installation will be recommended for practical application in research laboratories.
16. Scientifically speaking, energy is the capacity of doing work.


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