Сделай Сам Свою Работу на 5

Особенности употребления страдательных оборотов в английском языке

В английском языке подлежащим пассивной конструкции может быть:

1. прямое дополнение активной конструкции;
2. косвенное дополнение активной конструкции;
3. предложное дополнение активной конструкции.

 

Активная форма Пассивная форма
They showed us a new device. Они показали нам новый прибор. 1.A new device was shown to us. Новый прибор был показан нам. 2. We were shown a new device. Нам показали новый прибор.
We aimed at this result. Мы стремились к этому результату. This result was aimed at. К этому результату стремились.

 

В том случае, когда в качестве подлежащего пассивной конструкции употребляется предложное дополнение активной конструкции, предлог ставится после смыслового глагола.

He was relied upon. Нанего полагались.

Пассивные конструкции английского языка с подлежащим, выраженным словом, которое в активной конструкции выполняло функцию косвенного или предложного дополнения, следует при переводе заменять русским неопределенно-личным предложением (за ними послали, на них часто ссылаются и т.д.), и перевод надо начинать с предлога.

 

The force was acted upon. На эту силу воздействовали.
The agreement was arrived at. Пришли к соглашению.

 

В пассивной форме особенно часто употребляются следующие глаголы и глагольные фразеологические сочетания:

а) глаголы с послелогами:

 

to account forобъяснять; to act on (upon) действовать на; to agree uponдоговориться; to aim atстремиться к; to deal withиметь дело с, рассматривать вопрос; to depend on (upon) полагаться на, зависеть от; to dispose ofреализовывать; to listen toслушать; to look afterсмотреть за; to look atсмотреть на; to look forискать; to object toвозражать; to provide forпредусмотреть; to refer toссылаться на; to rely on (upon) полагаться на; to speak about (of) говорить о;
to hear of (about) слышать о; to insist on (upon) настаивать на; to laugh at смеяться над; to send forпосылать за; to touch uponкасаться, затрагивать; to wait forждать.

 

This book is often referred to. На эту книгу часто ссылаются.
His proposal was objected to. Против этого предложения возражали.

 

б) глагольные фразеологические сочетания:



 

to catch(take) hold ofсхватиться за; ухватиться за что-либо; to do away withпокончить с; to find fault withобвинять; to lose sight ofтерять из виду; to make applicationприменять; to make mention ofупоминать; to make provision forпредусматривать; to make use ofиспользовать; to pay attention toобращать внимание на; to put an end toпокончить с; to take advantage ofвоспользоваться; to take care ofзаботиться о; to take notice ofпринимать во внимание.

 

His words were not taken notice of. На его слова не обратили внимания.
This material will be made use of. Этот материал будет использован.

Когда нужно привлечь внимание к самому действию, выражаемому фразеологическим сочетанием, существительное выносится на первый план и глагол принимает форму страдательного залога. Предложение переводится неопределенно-личным предложением.

 

Mention has been made… Было упомянуто
Application should be made… Следует применить
Advantage was taken of this fact… Воспользовались этим фактом…
Useis being made of… Применяют…
Care should be taken… Следует позаботиться
Provisionis made for… Предусматривается…

В английском языке имеется ряд глаголов, которые являются переходными, т.е. требуют прямого дополнения, в то время как соответствующие русские глаголы являются непереходными и требуют предложного дополнения. К таким глаголам относятся:

 

to affect smb., smth. влиять на кого-л., на что-л.; to answer smth. отвечать на что-л.; to attend smth.присутствовать на чем-л.; to enjoy smth.получать удовольствие от чего-л.; to follow smb., smth.следовать за кем-л., за чем-л.; to influence smb., smth.влиять на кого-л., на что-л.; to join smb., smth.присоединяться к кому-л., к чему-л.; to need smb., smth.нуждаться в ком-л., в чем-л.; to watch smb., smth.следить за кем-л., за чем-л.

 

Страдательные обороты с такими глаголами переводятся на русский язык соответствующими действительными оборотами, при этом перевод следует начинать с предлога:

The question was answered. На вопрос ответили.
A great number of people attended the conference. На конференции присутствовало много людей.

При отсутствии дополнения с предлогом by такие страдательные обороты переводятся на русский язык неопределенно-личными оборотами, которые начинаются с предложного дополнения:

Your help is needed. В вашей помощи нуждаются.

Страдательные обороты с формальным подлежащим it

Обороты, состоящие из местоимения it и глагола в страдательном залоге – it is said, it was said, it is reported, it was reported, соответствуют в русском языке глаголам в 3-м лице множественного числа с неопределенно-личным значением: говорят, говорили, сообщают и т.п. В таких оборотах itиграет роль формального подлежащего и не имеет самостоятельного значения:

It is reportedthat the experiment has been carried out. Сообщают, что эксперимент проведен.  

В таких оборотах часто встречается сочетание модального глагола с инфинитивом страдательного залога: it can be said можно сказать, it shouldbe mentioned следует упомянуть, it was to be expected надо было ожидать и т.п.

При наличии as со значением как перед оборотами такого типа it не употребляется: as is reported как сообщают, as was believed как полагали, as was to be expected как надо было ожидать.

В некоторых случаях опускается и глагол-связка to be: as shown in Table 3 как показано в таблице 3, as stated below как указано ниже, as mentioned above как упомянуто выше, as reported in the last issue как сообщалось в последнем номере журнала.

Practice

Exercise 1. Rewrite these sentences in the passive.
Model: Nonlinear effects in the optical link cause significant performance degradation for the overall system. Significant performance degradation for the overall system is caused by nonlinear effects in the optical link.
1. These materials present new capabilities for studying acoustic characteristics.
2. Materials science offers researchers a wide variety of materials with chemical and physical properties.
3. We provide a comprehensive survey by covering some of the traditional methodologies.
4. The analysis provides a simple approach for dealing with local aspects of a signal.
5. The computer program created many graphs of discrete signals.
6. These algorithms employ mathematical, statistical and heuristic methodologies.
7. Fourier analysis easily calculates the frequencies which make up the signal.
8. This approach will provide valuable background for the experiment.

 

Exercise 2. Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words provided.

 

Model: Scientists are developing a catalytic converter which detoxifies engine fumes the world over. A catalytic converter which detoxifies engine fumes the world over is being developed by scientists.
1. Researchers are also finding ways to put proteins, DNA, viruses and other micro-organisms to work in building nanomaterials. Ways to put proteins__
2. The group recommended more research along with new regulations to control the technology. More research__
3. Experts are assessing the effect of emerging materials on health and environment. The effect of emerging materials__
4. The members of the commission are going to undertake tests on products that contain nanomaterials. Tests on products that contain nanomaterials__
5. The inventor has developed a programme of research to ensure the safety of products. A programme of research to ensure the safety of products__
6. The conventional optical fiber communications systems employ optical fibers to transport information in optical telecommunication networks. Optical fibers to transport information__
7. Traditional WDM communication system comprises a plurality of WDM transmitters. A plurality of WDM transmitters__
8. The article provides a broad overview of the characteristics of the signal. A broad overview of the characteristics of the signal__

 

Exercise 3. Fill in each blank with the necessary form of the verb in the Passive Voice.

 

1. “Nano” __ typically (use) to define structures with a length scale of 1-100 nm.
2. Frequency may __ (measure) with higher accuracy than any other parameter.
3. Pictures of the surface of the planet Venus __ (receive) yesterday from space probe “Explorer” which __ (launch) last year.
4. Nanoparticles __ (synthesize) in a variety of organic and inorganic materials.
5. The coders __ (adopt) in national and international cellular telephony standards.
6. In general, high-quality speech coding at low rates __ (achieve) using high-complexity algorithms.
7. Phase transitions in polycrystals __ (investigate) in detail.
8. Microchannels __ (create) in different materials, including glass, silicon and polymers.

 

Exercise 4. Complete these sentences with the passive form of the verbs in brackets.

 

1. Microprocessors __ (make) of silicon.
2. Call centers __ (use) to deal with telephone enquiries.
3. In recent years, most mobile phones __ (equip) with Bluetooth.
4. GPS __ (develop) in the 1970s as a military navigation system.
5. Sorry about the mess – the computers __ (replace) at the moment.
6. In the near future, the Internet __ (access) more frequently from PDAs and mobile phones than from desktop computers.
7. Networks __ (can connect) via satellite.
8. I had to use my laptop this morning while my PC __ (fix).

 

Exercise 5. A. Practice orally by using impersonal passive structures as shown in the following example.

 

Model: We (the author, they, etc.) have found that __ It has been found that __

 

1. I must admit that __
2. He has found that __
3. Everybody accepts that __
4. I believe that __
5. The author hopes that __
6. Scientists sometimes say that __
7. Most people assume that __
8. Physicists recognize nowadays that __

 

  B. Give English equivalents of the following Russian phrases using impersonal passive structures and adverbs “widely”, “generally” where required.
1. Говорят, что __  
2. Предполагается, что __  
3. Можно надеяться, что __  
4. Следует признать, что __  
5. Было найдено, что __  
6. Общепризнанно, что __  
7. Считают, что __  
8. Широко распространено мнение, что __  
       

 

Exercise 6. Transform the sentences using the Passive Voice.  
1. They say that scientists are on the point of making a vital breakthrough.
2. The authors consider that these two methodologies are major elements in a powerful set of tools for theoretical and applied analysis.
3. They show that a detailed analysis of the type of conduction of single crystal films has been carried out.
4. We expect that the implementation of new materials will benefit the study of the phenomenon.
5. They consider that semiconductor nanostructures and gold NPs are two classes of nanostructures.
6. Biochemists hope that viruses will be deployed as “nanocameras” to get a clearer picture of what is going on inside cells.
7. We suppose that the signal is severely distorted by added noise.
8. Scientists believe that similar concept may be used to quantitatively explain the unpredictability.
       

 

Exercise 7. Choose the most appropriate preposition in bold type. Translate the sentences.
1. The tight relationship between chaos theory and cryptography has been pointed out by/with some researchers.  
2. The rate of the reaction is affected by/on the change in such parameters as concentration, temperature and pressure.  
3. The initiative was supported by/with everybody.  
4. The discovery followed by/with further experimental work stimulated research in this area.  
5. Faster speed can be obtained with/by a little extra complexity and cost.  
6. The conference attended by/at scientists from different countries discussed new trends and methods in this research.  
7. Most digital chaotic ciphers are claimed to be secure by/with the authors but many of them are actually not.  
8. Some existing schemes have also been found to be insecure from/with cryptographical point of view.  
       

 

Exercise 8. Identify passive structures and give Russian equivalents of the relevant part of the sentence as shown in the following example.

 

Model: Under these conditions the question cannot be answered unambiguously. “The question cannot be answered”… На вопрос нельзя ответить …

 

1. This phenomenon has been dealt with by several researchers.
2. The conference was attended by all the participants.
3. Methods employed in solving a problem are strongly influenced by the research objective.
4. His scientific reports are always followed by heated discussions.
5. In several areas of research the efforts of scientists are joined by those of philosophers and sociologists.
6. This problem can be approached from several points of view.
7. The members of the laboratory were consulted prior to this successful operation.
8. The reaction was followed by measuring temperature.
9. These rules were arrived at independently.

 

Exercise 9. Identify passive structures followed by a preposition and give Russian equivalents of the relevant part of the sentence as shown in the following example.

 

Model: Such things are not even thought of before the experiment is actually made. “Things are not thought of …” О таких вещах не думают…

 

1. This approach has been referred to in an earlier paper.
2. I do not think this instrument can be relied upon.
3. The data cannot be accounted for by the existing theory.
4. This theory has been referred to as the “big bang” theory.
5. The best treatment of this material is generally agreed upon.
6. Rapid development of information technology has been called for by the needs of the national economy.
7. His warning was not taken notice of.
8. Application should be made of a new device this year.
9. Provision is made for new means of communication.

 

Exercise 10. Identify passive structures in the sentences below and give Russian equivalents of the relevant part of the sentences.
1. The results were affected by the presence of impurities.
2. Unfortunately no advantage was taken of the fast reaction rate.
3. So far no notice has been taken of the obvious advantage of this technique.
4. His curiosity was excited when reference was made to still earlier publications.
5. Recently the problem has been given close consideration in connection with a new space project.
6. Mention has already been made of the fact that gold is slowly attacked by these substances.
7. Several outstanding contributions have been made to the study of crystal growth.
8. There is no doubt that in the course of further scientific development extensive use will be made of modern computing machines and electronic devices.
     

 

Exercise 11. Put questions to the words given in bold type.  
1. Temperature of the electrolyte was kept at 293 K.
2. The wafers were then cut into pieces and subjected to electromechanical anodizing.
3. A visual correlation between three clean harmonics is less affected by the noise.
4. A fixed number of harmonics is used for testing the algorithm.
5. The CDM approach to capacity enhancement is based on phase modulation of partially coherent light.
6. The number of CDM channels can be varied without changing the physical infrastructure.
7. The advantages of ion beam techniques in thin film or surface technologies are pointed out in a lot of publications.
       

 

Exercise 12. Translate the following sentences into Russian.  
1. Many collision detection algorithms have been developed for solving collision problem for computer animation of moving objects.
2. Breakthroughs in chip development were needed to solve the problem of faster chips requiring more power and becoming less efficient.
3. Initial experimental specimens were prepared by vacuum deposing of aluminium films.
4. In this article mention is made of the acoustic devices designed by our scientists.
5. Around this concentration region the experiment was repeated three times and phenomenon was definitely confirmed.
6. Electrical signal carrying information is used to modulate the light emitted by an optical source, typically a laser diode.
7. The modulated light is then propagated through an optical fiber link.
8. It is observed that parts of the harmonic structure of speech have been removed.
9. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with other noise reduction methods.
       

 

Exercise 13. Translate into English.  
1. Важный вклад был сделан в изучение проблемы обеспечения информационной безопасности.
2. В этой лаборатории проводится много научных исследований.
3. Эта мысль была впервые высказана профессором Оксфордского университета.
4. Важность полученных выводов не была оценена.
5. За экспериментом последовало испытание разработанного устройства.
6. Алгоритм используется для измерения нулевых гармоник.
7. При таких условиях требования могут быть удовлетворены только частично.
8. Потребуются дальнейшие исследования для подтверждения этого результата.
9. Недавно модель была преобразована, и в настоящее время она широко используется на практике.
10. Все схемы можно легко расширить для проектирования других новых устройств.
       

 

Exercise 14. Choose the correct verb form.  
1. Modern speech-coding algorithms are associated/ are associating with numerical methods that are computationally intensive and often sensitive to machine precision.
2. The statistical and spectral properties of speech are defined/ have defined over short segments.
3. The properties of speech is being related /are related to the physical speech production system.
4. In fact, existing computer chips will be manufacturing/are already manufactured taking advantage of techniques at the nanoscale.
5. New and powerful light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may soon replace/ may be replaced conventional light bulbs, offering huge energy savings.
6. In the short term, the greatest advances through nanotechnology will come/will have been come in the form of novel medical devices and processes, new catalysts for industry and smaller components for computers.
7. LEDs are built/are building with nanoconductors, increasingly developed at the nanoscale.
8. Some nanomaterials, such as nanowires and other simple devices have shown/have beenshown to assemble themselves given the right conditions, and other experiments at larger scales are striving/are being striven to demonstrate the principles of self-assembly.
9. More recently scientists working on the nanoscale have created/have been creating a multitude of other nanoscale components and devices.
       

 

Exercise 15. A. Supply the correct form of the verbs in brackets.  
1. These parameters __ (extract) from each harmonic subband.
2. Illegal data access __ (become) more easy and prevalent in wireless and general communication networks.
3. In order to protect valuable data from undesirable readers or against re-production and modifications, the encryption techniques __ (propose).
4. The two parameters could be __ (view) as the keys to the proposed signal security system.
5. The evaluation of the design __ (include) the delay time and the areas cost.
6. The machine __ (try) under severe conditions.
7. No stage of the design can __ (complete) in the absence of the precise specification of the system under design.
8. Every thing __ (affect) by its relations to everything else.
       

 

  B. Today is Wednesday. Look at the notes Mark wrote yesterday and early today. Then write: a) what he had done yesterday; b) what he is having done today.

 

Tuesday Wednesday (today) Thursday
the information for the paper collected a scientific paper printed a meeting with the scientific supervisor arranged
the equipment for the experiment checked a resumé sent the model produced
the obtained results analyzed a summary of the article written the device tested

 

1. a. He had the equipment for the experiment checked yesterday.
b. He’s having a scientific paper printed today.
c. He’s going to have a device tested tomorrow.

 

Exercise 16. Use get in the required form in place of have in these sentences.

 

1. I must have __ I must get this report photocopied and sent off immediately.
2. They are finally having __ their computer repaired.
3. We’ll be having __ the experiment carried out by a group of specialists.
4. Why don’t you have __ the speed of the reaction changed?
5. They should have __ new laboratory equipment installed.
6. You need to have __ the theme of the research specified.
7. Have you had __ the data checked?
8. He is going to have __ his experiment repeated next week.
9. When will he have __ all his mistakes corrected?

 

Exercise 17. Put in causative forms for the verbs in brackets.

 

Constant maintenance

The more you own, the more there is to go wrong. You invest in a new hi-fi system and in no time you have to (it repair) 1__get it repaired. You (a new washing machine install) 2__ and you have to buy expensive insurance to maintain it. You buy a car and need to (it service) 3__ regularly. You buy a camera and then spend a fortune (films develop and print) 4__. It’s not only things that need constant attention. How often we have to (our eyes test) 5__, (our teeth fill) 6__ and (our chests X-ray) 7__! But I had to smile last time I went to (my hair cut) 8__. A bold notice in the window announced: “All our customers promptly executed!” You certainly wouldn’t need (any jobs do) 9__ after that!

 

Exercise 18. A. Read the text to yourself and be ready for a comprehension check-up.

 

Recently much attention has been given to the study of this phenomenon. In this paper new experimental observations are presented and discussed. The data have been obtained assuming a new model of the mechanism involved, which was suggested in an earlier study by the author. The measurements have been carried out with a conventional apparatus slightly modified by the author. All possible sources of error are taken into account and consideration is given to the advantages and shortcomings of the present approach. The results are analyzed and the analysis is followed by a comparison of the data obtained with those available in literature. It is hoped that the disagreement may be accounted for by an improved experimental technique of the present investigation.

 

  B. Check up comprehension.

 

1. Is it an abstract, a summary or a conclusion?
2. What was the author’s theoretical contribution?
3. Did anybody else study the phenomenon? (Find two sentences to support your answer).
4. Do the author’s results agree with those reported in literature?
5. How does he (she) account for that?
6. How does the author increase the accuracy of his (her) results?

 

Exercise 19. Read the article and underline all the examples of the passive. What tenses are they?

A hacker has been sent to jail for fraudulent use of credit card numbers. Nicholas Cook, 26, was arrested by the police officers near a bank cash point last month.

Eight months earlier, he had been caught copying hundreds of computer programs illegally. After an official inquiry, he was accused of software piracy and fined £5,000.

It is reported that in the last few years Cook has been sending malware (malicious software) to phone operators and attacking mobile phones to steal business and personal information. Cook has now been sentenced to three years in prison for stealing passwords and obtaining money by credit card fraud.

Government officials say that new anti-hacking legislation will be introduced in the EU next year.

 

Раздел 4. Неличные формы глагола
(Verbals)

 

Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив (The Infinitive), герундий (The Gerund), причастие настоящего времени (The Present Participle), причастие прошедшего времени (The Past Participle) имеют следующие особенности:

1. Совмещают в себе признаки двух частей речи (причастие – прилагательного и глагола, герундий – существительного и глагола,
инфинитив – глагола и существительного).

2. Выражают действие без указания лица, числа, времени и наклонения, поэтому в предложении не могут быть сказуемым, а лишь значимой частью сказуемого.

3. Имеют категории залога (Active, Passive) и времени (Present, Present Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous), которые обычно указывают на то, как протекало действие по отношению к действию, выраженному сказуемым. Формы Present и PresentContinuous показывают, что действие протекало одновременно с действием сказуемого. Формы Perfect и Perfect Continuous показывают, что действие предшествовало действию сказуемого, причём формы Present Continuous и Perfect Continuous выражают длительное действие. (Формы причастия настоящего времени и герундия совпадают).

4. Могут выступать в предложении в различных функциях: подлежащего, части сказуемого, дополнения, определения и обстоятельства.

5. Могут употребляться в сочетании с зависимыми словами, образуя обороты.

Употребление. Причастие употребляется в предложении в трех функциях: части сказуемого, определения и обстоятельства.

Герундий и инфинитив - в пяти: подлежащего, части сказуемого, дополнения, определения и обстоятельства, причем в функции определения (правого) и обстоятельства перед герундием всегда стоит предлог.

Перевод. Причастие переводится в зависимости от функции в предложении: в функции определения – причастием, в функции обстоятельства – деепричастием.

Герундий и инфинитив переводятся также в зависимости от функции: существительным, инфинитивом, деепричастием, иногда прилагательным.

Все неличные формы глагола могут переводиться личными – в оборотах.

Обороты. Все неличные формы глагола образуют сложные обороты – конструкции, которые состоят из существительного или местоимения и одной из неличных форм глагола. Переводятся придаточным или простым предложением.

Общая таблица неличных глагольных форм

 

 

Причастие настоящего времени The Present Participle Герундий The Gerund Инфинитив The Infinitive
  Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
Present asking being asked asking being asked to ask to be asked
Present Continuous to be asking
Perfect having asked having been asked having asked having been asked to have asked to have been asked
PerfectContinuous to have been asking
The Past Participle asked    
Способы употребления Употребление
подлежащее подлежащее
часть сказуемого часть сказуемого часть сказуемого
дополнение дополнение
определение (предлог) определение определение
обстоятельство (предлог) обстоятельство обстоятельство
Способы перевода Перевод
(опр.) причастием существительным инфинитивом
(обст.) деепричастием инфинитивом существительным
личной формой глагола (обороты) деепричастием деепричастием
  прилагательным прилагательным
  личной формой глагола (обороты) личной формой глагола (обороты)
                     

 

 

Обороты
«Объектный падеж с причастием» Герундиальные обороты «Объектный падеж синфинитивом»
прид. доп. предл. 1. прид.доп.предл.; 2.простым предл.
«Именительный падеж с причастием» прид. предл. со словами: то, что «Именительный падеж с инфинитивом»
 
Придаточное предложение 1. прид. предл.; 2. простым предл.
Независимый причастный оборот   Оборот «for + сущ. + + инфинитив»
1) прид. предл. времени, причины, условия (когда, так как, если); 2) отдельным предл. (причем, и, а) 1) прид. обст. предл.; 2) простым предложением

 

Раздел 5. Инфинитив
(Infinitive)

Инфинитив (неопределенная форма глагола) представляет собой неличную глагольную форму, которая только называет действие, не указывая ни лица, ни числа. Инфинитив отвечает на вопросы что делать? что сделать?: to read читать, прочесть; to write писать, написать; to buy покупать, купить.

Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to, которая не имеет самостоятельного значения и не принимает ударения. Однако частица toперед инфинитивом часто опускается.

Инфинитив произошел от отглагольного существительного и сохранил свойства этой части речи. Инфинитив, как и все неличные формы глагола, может:

а) иметь прямое дополнение, например:

to build roads– строить дороги

 

б) определяться наречием, которое иногда располагается между частицей и смысловой частью (split Infinitive), например:

to effectivelydetermine – определять эффективным образом

 

в) иметь сложные формы, например:

to be written – быть написанным

to have written – (уже) написать

to have been written – (уже) быть написанным



©2015- 2019 stydopedia.ru Все материалы защищены законодательством РФ.