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Суффиксы, образующие прилагательные.

2.1. Суффиксы, указывающие на наличие соответствующих качеств и свойств. Такие прилагательные образуются от глаголов и существительных.

 

А. от глаголов:

 

-able, -ible
to move двигать movable подвижный
to extend вытягивать extensible растягиваемый
-ant, -ent
to depend зависеть dependent зависимый
to resist сопротивляться resistant сопротивляющийся
-ive
to explode взрывать explosive взрывчатый

 

В. от существительных:

 

-al
centre центр central центральный
-ful
use польза useful полезный
-en
wood древесина wooden деревянный
-ic
magnet магнит magnetic магнитный
-ar
circle круг circular круглый
-ous
advantage преимущество, выгода advantageous выгодный, благоприятный, полезный
-y
dirt грязь dirty грязный
-ly
day день daily ежедневный

 

2.2. Суффикс, указывающий на отсутствие соответствующих качеств и свойств:

-less
wire проволока wireless беспроволочный

 

2.3. Суффикс, указывающий на наличие признака в слабой степени или на принадлежность к национальности:

-ish
white белый whitish беловатый
Pole поляк Polish польский

 

3. Суффиксы, образующие глаголы от прилагательных и существительных:

-en
length длина to lengthen удлинять(ся)
weak слабый to weaken ослаблять
-fy
intense сильный to intensify усиливать
simple простой to simplify упрощать
-ize
crystal кристалл to crystallize кристаллизировать
real настоящий to realize осуществлять

 

4. Суффиксы, образующие наречия:

Наиболее распространенным суффиксом является суффикс -ly. Он обычно присоединяется к прилагательным и образует наречия образа действия.

-1у
practical практический practically практически
easy легкий easily легко
-ward(s) указывает направление:
inward внутрь
onward(s) вперед
forward(s) вперед
upward(s) вверх
eastward(s) на восток

 

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences and underline the suffixes in the words in italics. Write out each word and try to decide what the suffix means. Refer back to the table if you need help.  
1. Potential threats include the destruction of computer hardware and software and the loss, modification, theft, unauthorized use, observation, or disclosure of computer data.
2. Computers enable the creation of graphics that are so realistic that they appear to have depth, even though they are actually just two-dimensional images displayed on a flat monitor, television, or movie screen.
3. A Trojan horse may appear to be something interesting and harmless, such as a game, but when it runs it may have harmful effects.
4. Developments in the television and video worlds in 1992 weren't as dramatic as in audio.
5. The heart of the system is a laser beam optical code reader, a device that automatically reads coded labels applied to each item of baggage.
6. In addition to response to the whole range of optical frequencies, the new detector is sensible enough to distinguish 25 separate television programs that a single laser beam might be able to carry.
7. The objective of the new broadband microwave station in space is to learn how to extend the useful life of communications satellites and to avoid or overcome the effects of radiation.
8. Later in 1998 the company suffered further losses stemming from labor contract disputes with other segments of the company's staff, including flight attendants, machinists, cleaners, and other employees.
9. Although some doctors practice nuclear medicine as a full-time specialty, many more physicians in such fields as radiology, pathology, and internal medicine use aspects of nuclear medicine in their work.
10. Beginning in 1995, the shuttle flew a series of missions to the Russian space station Mir.
       

 



The number of the sentence The word The suffix The meaning of the suffix
1. destruction    
1. disclosure    
2. depth    
3. harmless    
4. developments    
5. reader    
6. sensible    
7. useful    
8. machinists    
9. physicians    
10. Russian    

 

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct suffix from the following list.

 

-al -ence -ly -ship
-ance -hood -ment -th
-dom -ity -or -ward

 

a. The growth in numbers of educational television stations in the past year is not the only index of active 1 __.
b. A single fiber the wid 2__ of a human hair can transmit thousands of telephone conversations simultaneously.
c. The current flow is caused by the voltage, or potential differ 3__, between the terminals.
d. A conductor allows an electric current to flow through it, but it does not permit the current to flow with perfect free 4__.
e. Scientists describe this relation 5__ between resistance, length, and area by saying that resist 6 __ is proportional to length and inversely proportional to cross-sectional area.
f. An electric current is a move 7__of charge.
g. Substances that do not allow electric current to flow through them are called insulat 8__s, nonconductors, or dielectrics.
h. The element 9__unit of electricity is the absolute charge on a single electron or proton.
i. General circulation week 10 __ papers often contain news of interest to people in a smaller area than that of a daily paper, an area such as a small city, town, or neighbour 11__.
j. As an outer-shell electron jumps in 12__ to fill the inner-shell vacancy, the atom emits an X ray, a high-energy photon invisible to the eye.

 

Префиксы

1. Префиксы с отрицательным значением:

 

un- не
common обыкновенный uncommon необыкновенный
in- перед i префикс in- превращается в il-, перед r в ir-, перед m и р в im-.
capable способный incapable неспособный
legal легальный illegal нелегальный
rational рациональный irrational нерациональный
material вещественный immaterial невещественный
possible возможный impossible невозможный
dis- противоположное чувство
trust доверие distrust недоверие
un-, dis- и de- придают глаголам значение противоположного действия:
to fasten свинчивать to unfasten развинчивать
to charge заряжать to discharge разряжать
to compose составлять to decompose разлагать на составные части
non- не связанный с
inductive индукционный non-inductive безындукционный
elastic упругий non-elastic неупругий
mis-, mal- плохо, неправильно, ошибочно
to calculate вычислять to miscalculate ошибаться в расчетах
to function действовать, выполнять функции to malfunction не срабатывать
anti- анти-, против-
aircraft самолет antiaircraft противовоздушный
under- недостаточно, ниже, под
to estimate оценивать to underestimate недооценивать

 

2. Префиксы с положительным значением:

re- сделать снова, вновь
to construct строить to reconstruct перестроить, реконструировать
over- сверх, чрезмерно, слишком много
pressure давление overpressure чрезмерное давление

 

3. Префиксы размера:

 

semi- наполовину, частично
conductor проводник semiconductor полупроводник
equi- равный
distant далекий, отдаленный equidistant равноотстоящий
mini- маленький
bus автобус minibus микроавтобус
maxi- большой, указывает на большую величину
maximum максимальное значение
micro- необыкновенно маленького размера, в физической терминологии в миллион раз меньше, чем основная мера.
second секунда microsecond микросекунда (миллионная часть секунды)
macro- большой, необыкновенно большого размера
economics экономика macroeconomics макроэкономика
mega- большого размера, грандиозный, в физической терминологии мера, в миллион раз большая, чем основная мера.
watt ватт megawatt мегаватт

 

4. Префиксы положения:

 

inter- между, среди, взаимно
changeable заменяемый interchangeable взаимозаменяемый
national национальный international интернациональный, международный
super- над-, сверх
sonic звуковой supersonic сверхзвуковой
trans- через
continental континентальный transcontinental пересекающий континент, трансконтинентальный
ex- указывает на изъятие, исключение и т.п. из-, вне-; бывший
include включать, содержать в себе exclude исключать, не впускать
extra- что-то дополнительное, сверх-
ordinary обычный, обыкновенный extraordinary необычный, экстраординарный
sub- ниже (качество, положением) под-
station станция substation подстанция
infra- ниже-, под-, инфра-
red красный infra-red инфракрасный
peri- вокруг
pericardium околосердечная сумка

 

5. Префиксы времени и порядка:

 

ante-, pre- до-, раньше-, перед-
war война pre-war довоенный
date дата, число antedate дата, поставленная задним числом
prime- первый, главный
minister министр prime-minister премьер-министр
post- после
war война post-war послевоенный
retro- назад
action действие, реакция retroaction обратная реакция, обратное действие

 

6. Префиксы числа:

 

semi- полу-
circle круг, окружность semicircle полукруг
mono- одно-, моно-
basic основной, основный monobasic одноосновный
bi- двойной
monthly ежемесячный bi-monthly два раза в месяц, или один раз в 2 месяца
tri- трёх-, тре-, три-
focal фокусный, фокусное расстояние, центральный trifocal трифокальный
quad(r)- четырёх-
angle угол quadrangle четырехугольный
penta- пяти-
angular угольный, угловой pentangular пятиугольник
hex(a)- шести-
hexagonal шестиугольник
sept(en)- septi- семи-
septennial семилетний, происходящий раз в семь лет
oct(a)- восьми-
angular угольный octangular восьмиугольный
dec(a)- десяти-
metre метр decametre декаметр, 10 метров
multi- много
national национальный multinational многонациональный

 

7. Другие префиксы:

pro- до, заранее, вперед
motion движение promotion продвижение, повышение (в звании)
auto- само-, авто-
biography биография autobiography автобиография (биография, написанная самим человеком о себе)
со- общность действия
to exist существовать to coexist сосуществовать

 

Exercise 3. Read the following sentences and underline the prefixes in the words in italics. Write out each word and try to decide what the prefix means. Refer back to the table if you need help.
1. Manager of the company fired him for incompetence.  
2. Unfortunately we were misinformed about the purpose of the fund.  
3. A mini-computer is a computer which is smaller than a normal computer.  
4. A megaphone is a cone-shaped device for making your voice sound louder in the open air.  
5. A submarine is a ship that can travel below the surface of the sea.  
6. These courses interrelate in a variety of ways.  
7. This gives greater peripheral vision.  
8. Protection of the environment is a precondition of a healthy society.  
9. We sat in a big semicircle round Hunter's desk.  
10. The university hopes to collaborate with industry.  
       

 

The number of the sentence The word The prefix The meaning of the prefix
1. incompetence    
2. unfortunately    
2. misinformed    
3. mini-computer    
4. megaphone    
5. submarine    
6. interrelate    
7. peripheral    
8. precondition    
9. semicircle    
10. collaborate    

 

Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct prefix from the following list.

 

auto- inter- micro- mono- sub-
de- maxi- mini- multi-  

 

1. This is an age of high technology and __mation.
2. The knowledge was there somewhere in the depths of his __consciousness.
3. Many local papers are prosperous because they enjoy a virtual __ poly.
4. He accused the Minister of seeking to __ centralise the Commission.
5. The company's main objective is to __mize profits.
6. The high way __secting Main Street is a busy crossing.
7. Our aim must be to __mize the risks.
8. A __wave oven is a cooker which cooks food very quickly by short-wave radiation rather than by heat.
9. Many of the West's large __national companies have operations in Africa.

 

Practice

Exercise 1. Translate the following words into Russian. Identify suffixes and prefixes.  
anti-body decode disarm postwar ultramodern
anti-fascist decompose discover prehistoric ultra-violet
coauthor deform ex-champion reconstruct undress
co-existence depart interaction reread unequal
cooperation disappearance misunderstand superhuman untrue
             

 

Exercise 2. Find suffixes of the words below, identify the parts of speech to which these words belong.
active dangerous freedom passage understandable  
artist different function peaceful useful  
attractive director fundamental pitiless worker  
British doubtful heartless professional    
capitalism economic industrial silence    
childish elementary kingdom successful    
creative experiment musician treatment    
             

 

Exercise 3. a) Form nouns using proper suffixes.  
to communicate to create to invent to recognize to transform
to construct to identify to operate to restore to transmit
             

 

  b) Translate the words with the prefix fore-.  
forearm forego foremost forestate
forefather foreknow foresee foretell
           

 

Exercise 4. Suffixes.

 

HELP BOX
• Suffixes change the class of the root word. For example, by adding the suffix -al, the noun digit is changed into the adjective digital. Suffixes can help you tell if a word is a noun, an adjective or a verb. Common adjectival suffixes are: -y, -able, -ible, -ive, -al, -ed, -ful, -ic, -less, -ing. Common noun suffixes are: -er, -or, -ion, -tion, -ation, -ment, -ness, -ity, -ant, -logy, -ing, -y, -ure, -sion. • When using suffixes, always check in your dictionary to see if you need to change any other letters. scan→ scanner(double n)

 

A. Look at the HELP box and then use suitable suffixes to make adjectives or nouns from these words. In some cases, you can make more than one word. Use a dictionary to help you.

 

colour
profession
photograph
wire
blur
innovate
underexpose

 

B. Complete these sentences with the word in brackets and one of these noun suffixes: -tion, -er, -ing, -logy, -ness. Use a dictionary to help you.

 

1. Kodak is a (manufacture) __ of photographic and imaging equipment.
2. To avoid red eyes, use the camera's red eye (reduce) __ feature.
3. (Crop) __ a photograph means cutting out the parts of an image you don't need.
4. The (sharp __ of a photograph is a combination of resolution and acutance – the ability to represent clear edges.  
5. Digital (techno) __ is evolving so rapidly that some cameras have a resolution of 12 megapixels – that's 12 million pixels.

 

Exercise 5. Form other parts of speech from the following words:

 

to compete to enter to participate to succeed
to complete to evaluate to relate to vary
to depend to graduate to require  

 

Exercise 6. Form the derivatives of the words given in the chart below. Use a dictionary if necessary.
Noun Verb Adjective
depression    
    embarrassed
  agree  
  argue  
  suffer  

 

Exercise 7. Define the parts of speech of the following words:
achieve – achievement    
act – active – action – activity
assist – assistance – assistant  
celebrate – celebration    
city – citizen    
contain – container    
develop – development    
difference – different    
discover – discovery – discoverer  
educate – education    
govern – governor – government  
graduate – graduation – undergraduate – post-graduate
literature – literary – illiterate  
measure – measurement – measurable  
nation – national – nationality  
progress – progressive    
resistance – resistant    

 

  Exercise 8. Fill in the table with the proper derivatives which are possible.  
Verb Noun Adjective
to investigate  
  measurement  
to observe    
    creative
  success  
to require    
    wide
  proof
to grow  
  existence
    safe
to develop  
  improvement
to reduce  
  recognition
    unimaginable
           

 

Exercise 9. The prefixes e and cyber.

 

HELP BOX
The prefixes e- and cyber- • The e- prefix means electronic and we add it to activities that take place on computers or online, for example e-business/e-commerce – business conducted over the Internet. Other examples include: e-card, e-learning, e-zine, e-voting, e-signature, e-assessment, e-cash, e-book and e-pal. There areoften spelling variations, with or without a hyphen, so always check your dictionary. • The cyber- prefix comes from cybernetics, and we use it to describe things related to computer networks, for example cybercafé – an internet cafe. Other examples include: cybercrime,cyberculture,cyberslacker and cyberspace.

 



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