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Find Participles in the following sentences. Translate the sentences.

1. Studying Newton’s work “Principia” a young physicist discovered a mistake in the calculation. 2. Having designed a car radar the engineers started complex tests. 3. While driving a car one should be very attentive. 4. A new electronic instrument will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. 5. The engine tested showed that it needed no further improvement. 6. Scientists are experimenting with a system allowing drivers to see better after dark. 7. The system being tested will increase the safety and fuel efficiency of a car. 8. Having been tested the computer system was installed at a plant. 9. The night-vision system designed will be available in the 1990’s. 10. The synthetic magnet has a lot of valuable qualities that can be changed, if wished. 11. Recently there appeared battery-powered cars. 12. The radar used was of a completely new design. 13. Having been heated the substance changed its properties. 14. Being provided with batteries an electric car can develop a speed of 50 miles an hour. 15. A defect undetected caused an accident. 16. Though first developed for military purposes radar can be used in modern cars.

4. Choose sentences with the Absolute Participial Construction from the ones given below. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. The first engines appeared in the 17-th century and people began using them to operate factories, irrigate land, supply water to towns, etc. 2. The steam engine having been invented in 1825, a self-propelled vehicle was built. 3. The supply of steam in the car lasting only 15 minutes, the vehicle had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam. 4. After the German engineer N. Otto had invented the gasoline engine, the application of this engine in motor cars began in many countries. 5. The cars at that time were very small, the engine being placed under the seat. 6. Motorists had to carry a supply of fuel, because there were no service stations. 7. Brakes having become more efficient, cars achieved greater reliability. 8. Cars with internal combustion engines having appeared, the automobile industry began developing rapidly. 9. By 1960 the number of cars in the world had reached 60 million, no other industry having ever developed so quickly.

5. Define the subject of an Absolute Participial Construction. Translate the sentences.

1. Numerous experiments having been carried out at the orbital stations, it became possible to develop new methods of industrial production of new materials. 2. President Jefferson having offered his personal library, the foundation of the Library of Congress was laid. 3. Anthony Panizzi designed the Reading Room of the British Museum, the Reading Room being a perfect circle. 4. A beam of light being transmitted forwards, it is possible to measure the distance between the car and the other cars in front of it. 5. The distance having been measured, the computer adjusts the car’s speed. 6. Two metallurgists produced a new superplastic metal, the new steel showing properties identical to Damascus steel. 7. The young physicist having discovered Newton'’ error, other scientists confirmed it. 8. The first TV sets having been shown in 1939, the news about it spread throughout the world.

Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. When completed in 1897, Gefferson’s building was the largest and costliest library in the world. 2. Though being a school teacher of mathematics all his life, Tsiolkovsky concentrated his attention on man’s travel into space. 3. If compared to today’s TV programme, the first black-and-white pictures were not very good. 4. While being a teacher of deaf people Bell became interested in sound and its transmission. 5. Though discovered, Newton’s mistake had no influence on his theory. 6. While working at a new transmitter for deaf people Bell invented a telephone. 7. If heated to 100º C water turns into steam. 8. With the first steam engine built in the 17-th century, people began to use them in factories. 9. The inventor was demonstrating his new device, with the workers watching its operation attentively. 10. With his numerous experiments being over, Newton was able to write his work very quickly. 11. With the current being switched on, the machine automatically starts operating.

7. Change the complex sentences with Participial Constructions.

1. When he was translating the article he used a dictionary. 2. While the student was working at the problem he made many experiments. 3. When the worker was experimenting with this substance he was very careful. 4. After he had left the house he walked to the nearest metro station. 5. When I looked out the window I saw Mary coming. 6. As we finished our part of the work we were free to go home. 7. As Ann had had no time to write to us a letter she sent a telegram. 8. The worker who is repairing the machine is very skilled. 9. The students who are doing the laboratory work are from various faculties.

8. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Читая книгу, он обычно делает заметки. 2. Прочитав текст, мы обсудили его. 3. Отвечая на вопросы, он сделал несколько ошибок. 4. Ответив на вопросы преподавателя, мы начали переводить новый текст. 5. Являясь хорошим проводником электричества, медь широко используется в промышленности. 6. Увидев зеленый свет, мы перешли улицу. 7. Покупая газету, он потерял деньги. 8. Купив газету, он пошел к метро.

9. Translate the text without a dictionary.

A new vacuum-controlled constant velocity carburetor developed by an American company offers several advantages over ordinary carburetors, including 25 per cent gasoline economy, improved engine performance and easier starting. The device having only 54 parts compared with some 300 in conventional carburetors has no choke (дроссель). It constantly adjusts the mixture of fuel and air, which cannot be done in usual carburetors. Provided with special mechanism the carburetor helps the engine turn on at once in cold weather. Though developed quite recently it is already being used by cars and other kinds of public transport. With diesel engine becoming almost standard equipment, the vacuum carburetor will never be used on new cars. It may be said that present-day carburetors are a dinosaur and in 20 years there won’t be any more. But there are some countries which are interested in importing the device as a replacement for existing carburetors.

Read the text and fill in the table with the information from the text. Using the table speak on the most important car design innovations since 1770.

Car design innovations since The latest car electronic systems Their advantages Their disadvantages


Car of Future

Ever since Nicolas Cugnot, a Frenchman, invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770 there has been no shortage of companies willing to make a better automobile. Over years their efforts have given users the gasoline engine (дизель), the electric starter, tubeless tires (бескамерная шина), fuel-injected engines and anti-lock brakes, these are only a few innovations. What is next? Here are some examples of what the car designers are working at in the world today. Engineers are experimenting with a state-of-art (новейший) system that enables drivers to see better after dark. This “night vision” system uses infrared sensors that can detect a human figure at night more than 1,600 feet away. That’s five times the distance at which conventional headlights are effective. The sensors pick up infrared rays emitted by any object that gives off heat. An image-processing system scans the information from the sensors, creating different images for different objects. The images are then displayed on a cathode-ray screen built-in a car’s instrument panel. It is like black-and-white photograph of an object ahead. And the system is passive, which means no lights are needed to illuminate the object in front of the vehicle. But the biggest problem will be reducing costs and the other one is the size of the sensor mechanism that is too big now.

One of the latest applications of sophisticated electronics is the wheel-computerized system that not only monitors air pressure in automobile tires but also adjusts it automatically. This system in addition enables a driver to set tire pressure while seated. The system developed consists of three separate modules. The first is the instrument panel display which houses the system’s main microprocessor, programming buttons and warning signals. The second component is the detector drive module (модуль привода) that is essentially four microchips attached, in one unit, to the chassis. Each chip detecting pressure changes that may occur, the transistors within the module signal the third component – a programmable transducer (программируемый преобразователь).

The transducer attached to each wheel changes the tire pressure accordingly. However, some automobile experts think this system is too complicated and costly. The design has to be simple and of low cost.


The Gerund


Герундий (The Gerund) - неличная форма глагола, которая, как и причастие I, образуется с помощью суффикса –ing, добавляемого к основе глагола. Герундий обладает как свойствами глагола, так и существительного. В русском языке аналогичной формы нет. По своему значению герундий приближается к русским отглагольным существительным, обозначающим процесс (хождение, обсуждение, чтение и т.д.).

Формы герундия

  Active Passive
Non-perfect (неперфектная форма герундия обозначает действие,одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого или будущее по отношению к глаголу-сказуемому) making being made
Perfect (перфектная форма герундия обозначает действие, предшествующее действию глагола-сказуемого) having made having been made

Отрицательная форма образуется путем постановки частицы “not”перед герундием.

Герундий может переводиться на русский язык существительным, инфинитивом, деепричастием и придаточным предложением.

I like his method of teaching. – Мне нравится его метод преподавания.

It’s no use talkingto him. – С ним бесполезно разговаривать.

He left without sayinga word. – Он ушел, не сказав ни слова.

He was suspected of keepingsomething from us. – Его подозревали в том, что он что-то от нас скрывает.

Герундий может иметь перед собой предлог, определение, выраженное притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже.

We can increase the current by reducingthe resistance of the current. – Можно увеличить силу тока уменьшаясопротивление цепи.

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