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Diners May Be Willing to Pay More to Eat at 'Green' Restaurants

Researchers found that more than 8 out of 10 restaurant patrons surveyed in Columbus said they would be willing to pay more to dine at "green" restaurants. More than 7 out of 10 said it was good for restaurants to protect the environment.

The only problem is that very few restaurants market themselves as "green" or environmentally friendly, said Jay Kandampully, co-author of the study and professor of consumer sciences at Ohio State University.

"It is clear that green practices could be beneficial for restaurants. Customers want their restaurants to be environmentally friendly and say they're willing to pay more for it," Kandampully said.

"It would be a shame if restaurants don't make use of that support."

The study appeared in a recent issue of the journal Tourism and Hospitality Research.

Kandampully and his colleagues surveyed 455 customers of five independent casual dining restaurants in Columbus. Customers were asked a variety of questions about their perceptions of green restaurants.

The results made it clear that restaurant customers are intrigued by the possibility of environmentally friendly restaurants, said Franziska Schubert, a study co-author who conducted the research while a graduate student at Ohio State.

"We thought there would be some interest in green restaurants, but this showed an overwhelming interest in the concept and a willingness to pay for it," Schubert said.

About 65 percent of those surveyed said they would be willing to pay up to 10 percent more to dine at green restaurants, and 20 percent would be willing to pay even more. Only about 15 percent said they would not be willing to pay any more to eat at an environmentally friendly restaurant.

About 70 percent said it is good for restaurants to protect the environment, and nearly half -- 48 percent -- said dining at green restaurants will be healthier.

Overall, participants in the survey were most interested in restaurants that took actions to protect the environment, such as reducing energy usage and waste and using biodegradable or recycled products.

"The problem is that most of these actions are not visible to diners," Schubert said. "The customers don't see what is happening in the kitchen and that is one reason why people are unsure if a particular restaurant is green."

The second most important green practice to diners, after environmental action, was the use of organic products and serving locally grown food.

Least important to diners was having restaurants donate some of their profits to environmental projects or pay fees to reduce their ecological footprint.

There were some age and gender differences in how diners viewed green practices at restaurants.

Women and those aged less than 35 were more likely than others to believe dining at green restaurants would be healthier.

Those under 35 were also more likely than older people to say it was important for restaurants to use organic foods and to pay fees to reduce their ecological footprints.

Women were much more likely than men to say it was important for restaurants to donate to environmental projects.

 

ScienceDaily (Dec. 7, 2010)

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101207152506.htm

IV.Сделайте реферирование статьи на английском в соответствии с таблицей:

Огнезащита и антикоррозия

Комплексные покрытия для защиты металлоконструкций от коррозии и огня



Сталь – широко распространенный в строительстве конструкционный материал. Но стальные конструкции легко подвергаются коррозии под воздействием загрязненной атмосферы и повышенной влажности, оказывающих свое негативное влияние в большей степени на наружные, но зачастую не щадящие и внутренние конструкции. Очевидно, что требуется их обязательная антикоррозионная защита. Кроме того, стальные конструкции быстро теряют свои прочностные характеристики при воздействии высоких температур, а значит, требуют принятия огнезащитных мер.

Обе проблемы можно решить путем нанесения специальных лакокрасочных покрытий: для защиты от коррозии – антикоррозионных, для обеспечения огнестойкости металлоконструкций – огнезащитных. Защита металлоконструкций с помощью лакокрасочных материалов является простым, удобным в применении, эффективным, относительно недорогим и благодаря этому самым распространенным способом.

Как правило, для защиты металлоконструкций их окрашивают самой распространенной грунтовкой ГФ-021 с последующим перекрытием огнезащитной краской вспучивающегося типа, обеспечивающей необходимый предел огнестойкости конструкций. Однако грунтование металлоконструкций происходит на заводе-изготовителе, а нанесение огнезащитного покрытия – уже на объекте. При этом срок службы грунтовки ГФ-021 в открытой атмосфере не превышает одного года, а технологический разрыв между грунтованием металлоконструкций на заводе и нанесением огнезащитной краски на уже смонтированные конструкции зачастую достигает нескольких месяцев, а иногда затягивается на несколько лет.

 

Сергей ТЕРЕНТЬЕВ, начальник отдела продвижения ЗАО НПХ ВМП

“Новый Уральский строитель” №11 (115) – 2011 http://nus-ural.ru

V.Переведите статью:

Mechanical Metallurgy Examples

Engineers must establish the strength and ductility values for the part to be fabricated. The engineer also is responsible for selecting the most desirable material for the fabricated product’s end use, based on criteria such as indoor-outdoor use, corrosion considerations, or aesthetics.

These values also are important to the job shop welder, who will use them to determine the filler material, the welding process to use, and the pre- and postweld heating procedures.

A good example is welding weathering steel. The first of this type of material was called CORE-TEN®, which was a trade name for ASTM A-588. This material became popular because it does not require a coating in a normal outdoor atmosphere. A copper oxide is formed on the surface of the material to prevent deep rusting. The welder not only needs to know that it is copper-bearing, which calls for caution with the temperature (note the lower requirements on the preheat chart), but also that it has yield strength of 50 kilopounds per square inch (KSI).

Just observing the appearance of the material before the oxidation sets in is not enough to differentiate it from plain A-36, which has yield strength of only 36 KSI. This is another instance that requires welders to study the MTR. The welder must select a welding material that matches both the steel’s mechanical properties and the atmospheric corrosion properties as closely as possible.

Until very recently no filler metal was produced specifically for weathering steel. The matching filler metal charts proposed the use of low-hydrogen electrodes, E7018 or E7028. These electrodes did not provide the atmospheric corrosion resistance properties. The industry’s choices ran from ER80S-B2 to ER80S-Ni-2 or for FCAW, E81T1-Ni2. The ER80S-B2 possesses the necessary atmosphere corrosion properties, but the mechanical properties—toughness and ductility—are lacking. The Ni-2 fillers are a bit high in the tensile and yield area, but the toughness makes up for it.

A knowledgeable welding supply company often is a very good source for providing information such as that needed for meeting multiple requirements. Web sites can be very helpful, too, but many times a product is being sold, rather than providing needed technical information. Welders should always seek out several resources and compare the information. The AWS Welding Handbooks also are very helpful.

 

Basic metallurgy for welders

By Carl Smith

April 6, 2011

VI.Сделайте реферирование статьи на русском, опираясь на таблицы:

How to choose the right press technology for assembly operations

Press assembly technology has undergone considerable development in recent years. It has evolved from simple hand-operated presses, through pneumatic or hydro-pneumatic presses with force and stroke monitoring, to sophisticated electromechanical servo presses. Manual presses rely on an operator input for control, while more advanced systems are capable of providing almost unlimited control options with previously unachievable levels of precision and repeatability, in a wide range of industries such as automotive, aerospace, medical, petrochemical, testing and processing.

Servo presses are becoming increasingly common and can essentially be grouped into three main categories. These range from the most basic models that feature a simple servo actuator mechanism with a motor and spindle used to generate force, through advanced units with a range of control devices, to highly intelligent, fully-integrated purpose-built systems with real-time data processing, closed-loop force control and dynamic compensation for system, tooling and part compression and relaxation.

While these diverse presses offer an impressive range of features that meet the functional needs of many production tasks - including assembling, flaring, joining, pressing, testing, bending, embossing, forming, stamping and riveting - choosing the correct press for each specific application is not always straightforward. In today's economic climate, there is no room for costly mistakes, so the specification of electromechanical presses requires careful thought to achieve the ideal solution.

A basic servo actuator, for example, is normally used in automation machines for simply moving parts between locations; these devices are, however, also suitable for basic pressing operations, acting as a ram unit. Basic presses provide users with the flexibility to control both the ram position and speed. They cannot provide true closed-loop force control, but instead measure force via the torque of the motor or by using an external load cell. Depending on the specific needs of each application, a variety of control packages can be included and the options vary depending on the supplier and system builder used.

On the other hand, high-end servo actuators that have been designed to function as presses often feature several additional mechanical components, including planetary roller screw spindles for higher forces, mechanical clutches, integrated load cells and guided anti-rotational rams. In terms of control, there are various software programs available that can monitor and manage the press operation; they are not, however, capable of providing true closed-loop force control.

The most sophisticated servo press systems effectively incorporate all the features of high-end servo actuators and servo press systems, as well as using other additional components, to significantly increase functionality and enable users to produce extremely high quality parts. These systems often use completely integrated controls, designed specifically for pressing applications, to monitor the total pressing operation and achieve unparalleled levels of precision, while the extremely high-speed data transmission capabilities enable real time processing, providing true closed loop force control.

Furthermore, these high-performance systems have been specifically designed to operate in industrial environments and, as such, feature integrated safety circuits, to minimise any electromagnetic interference (EMI) present in the surrounding area, as well as incorporating a motor cooling system.

14 October 2011

Roger Ilett, the General Manager of Schmidt Technology Ltd,

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