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INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

STATISTICS

The branch of mathematics concerned with collecting and interpreting data is called statistics The data are often collected by interviewing a sample group of people who are meant to represent the whole population. If the sample group has been put together carefully, the findings should be fairly accurate for the entire population. The information gained from the sample group can be very useful to government agencies and businesses, helping them find out tastes, opinions, and the probable outcome of events.   Отрасль математики, занимающаяся сбором и интерпретацией данных, называется статистикой. Часто сбор данных производится путем опроса выбранной группы людей, которая, по предположению, представляет все население. Если члены группы тщательно отобраны, результаты должны быть довольно точными для всего населения. Полученная от выбранной группы информация может оказаться весьма полезной для правительственных органов и деловых кругов, помогая им выявить вкусы, мнения и вероятный исход каких-либо событий.

 

 

XXV. Определите уровни эквивалентности, опираясь на перевод:

1. Billy found the afternoon stingingly exciting (KV) Все в этот день возбуждало в Билли жгучий интерес.

2. From that day I was known as Needle (MS) С тех пор меня стали звать Иголкой.

3. She knew her chances were diminishing (MS) Она понимала, что годы уходят.

4. The bird looked at him when he spoke (EH) Птица посмотрела на него в ответ.

5. How much did it cost you to see me today? (WG) Сколько ты отдал, чтобы попасть ко мне?

6. What is your name? (JJ) Как тебя зовут?

7. Little Billy was terrified, because his father had said Billy was going to learn to swim by the method of sink-or-swim (KV)

Маленький Билли ужасно боялся: отец сказал, что будет учить его плавать методом «плыви или тони».

8. Не had a housekeeper (KV) За ним ухаживала экономка.

9. The others would walk off and leave me talking (RB) Те просто ушли бы и не стали меня слушать.

10. I told him that was one of the things I learned in college after the war (KV)

Я ему сказал, что этому, как и многому другому, меня учили в университете после войны.

11. But there were still a few wounded Americans, though, and some of the bombers were in bad repair (KV)

Но все же там оставалось несколько раненых амери­канцев, и некоторые самолеты были сильно повреж­дены.

12. Billy's home was empty (KV) Дома у Билли никого не было.

13. You will have to share our council (WG) Нам нужен и твой совет.

14. I am not religious, he said (EH)

«В Бога я не верую», — сказал он.

15. But what a great fish he is and what he will bring in the market if the flesh is good (EH)



Но какая большая это рыба и сколько она принесет денег, если у нее вкусное мясо!

16. Only after a long time did he move (RB) Он долго стоял неподвижно.

17. Like so many Americans, she was trying to construct a life that made sense from things she found in gift shops (KV) Как многие американцы, она пыталась украсить жизнь вещами, которые продавались в лавочках сувениров.

18. Phanocles took his hands from his face (WG) Фанокл оторвал взгляд от своих рук.

 

XXVI. Изучите таблицу ложных друзей переводчика и переведите предложения:

1. A progressive increase in volume was noticed at all exten­sions.

 

2. The relationship is responsible for the original shifting of this band.

 

3. This compound actually proved to be an isomer.

 

4. The new procedure enabled us to overcome the above difficul­ties. Again there took place an unexpected drop in the demand for this product.

 

5. No final decision between all these various alternatives is pos­sible at present.

 

6. On this approach rates of reactions are not measured.

 

7. The method, however, suffers badly from retardation effects.

 

8. Instrument air.

 

9. A discussion of the experimental procedures for this type of experimental system has been given elsewhere.

 

10. The philosophy used in the design of the experiment is as follows.

 

11. Figure 10 illustrates how this self-checking is accom­plished.

 

 

XXVII.Исправьте ошибку в предложении:

Increase the pressure of the process gase­ous streams, from the plant operating val­ues to the pressure values required for transport and rejec­tionto reservoir.

 

 

XXVIII.В соответствии с примером заполните третий столбик:

Английское слово Словарное значение «Анаколуфное значение»
accuracy точность погрешность
sliding скольжение  
curvature кривизна  
thrust осевое усилие  
reduction величина уменьшения  
fatigue life долговечность  

 

XXVIII.В соответствии с примером заполните третий столбик:

 

Английское слово Словарное значение «Амбивалентное значение»
approximately точно приблизительно
marginal предельный (предполагается максимальный)  
apparent кажущийся  
virtual фактический, действительный  
implicit подразумеваемый, неявный  
conservative завышенный  
best наибольший  
worst наибольший  
improved уменьшенный  
offset возмещать (давать)  
trip выключать (расцеплять)  

 

XXIX. Выберите наилучший вариант, выделенный жирным шрифтом:

If the rectifier DC output is equipped with 2 pole breaker, the alarm will trip if the DC output breaker is tripped.     Когда выход постоянного тока выпрямителя оборудован двухполюсным выключателем, сигнал отказа включается / выключается, если этот выключатель постоянного тока на выходе включается/ выключается.

 

XXX. Переведите предложения:

1. Bright colors seem to wear better.

Яркие цвета выцветают, по-видимому, меньше(иными словами: сопротивляются выцветанию лучше).

2. Engines do not wear well.

3. It ages well at a reasonable price for an American car.

4. Avoid well-worn interior fabrics.

 

XXXI. Заполните таблицу в соответствии с примером:

Well + PP II = сильно:

well-advised предусмотрительный, расчетливый
well-appointed  
well-defined  
well-grounded/founded  
well-timed  
well-worn  

XXXII.Определите рему и тему. Переведите предложения:

1. A copper water-carrying cooling coilwas activated during the freezing of the material.

В процессе замораживания материала включался в работу медный змеевик с охлаждающей водой.

2. Nonlinear programming methodsare applied to the grinding model for calculating the optimum grinding parameters.

3.Side lightingwas used in making the photographs exhibited here.

 

4. A section through this fatigue spall (Fig.6) shows that cracking did not originateat the bore.

 

5. It was generally observed that a heat affectedzone was present in the surface region of each specimen.

 

6. The data clearly show that large quantities of pyritescan be removed from coal.

 

7.Other instabilitiesgenerally became increasingly important as the cou­pling factor was increased.

 

8.One sensorwas positioned in each of 25 tubes after the bundle was as­sembled and installed in the test facility.

 

9. Tests with the Total emulsifier were more limited since a different high pressure nozzlehad to be installed for each emulsion flow rate.

 

10.This is a surprising outcome, inasmuch as larger differenceswould have been expected on the basis of geometrical differences between the two types of channels.

 

11. Results were rewarding, since much knowledgewas derived for a rela­tively small investment in computer time.

 

12.Thus, to reduce the resistance of the bed, largerparticleswere required.

 

13. Heat transfer by natural convection is investigated experimentally.

 

14. Fig. 13 suggests total flame radiation is reduced rather than increasedby using emulsified fuels.

 

15.Little attentionhas been given, however, to the combustion of pyrites as an impurity in coal fired in a furnace for the purpose of rising steam.

 

16.Very little machiningis necessary to prepare the sample.

 

XXXIII.Match abbreviations and their decryption:

1. Ped Xring a) easy ride;
2. XPDR b) transfer;
3. U-cut Xmas tree c) for sale;
4. Bar-B-Q d) transciever;
5. XFER e) command & control;
6. С2 f) pedestrian crossing;
7. 4 sale g) command, control & commu­nications;
8. XCVR h) barbecue;
9. Speaker i) SPKR;
10. E-Z ride j) Christmas;
11. СЗ k) transponder;
12. Xmas l) You cut Christmas tree.

XXXIV.Match the text abbreviations and their meanings.

Text messages

CUL8R is a text message. It means ‘See you later’. C is for see, U is for you, L8 is for late, L8R is for later.

abbreviation meaning abbreviation meaning
ru? please luv to, too
ur be 2nite love
pls message great
thx are you? 4u Bye for now.
xxx you are bfn for you
b kisses gr8 I’m
idk thanks im tonight
msg I don’t know.    

Read these messages. What do they mean?

       
   


 

XXXV.Suggest Russian translation to English Idioms:

English phrase Russian phrase
with an open mind  
time will tell  
have a slight edge  
appear out of place  
the general pattern continues  
take stock of (something)  
convenient reach  
adds further credence to  
has much to recommend it  
we take issue with  
the most prominent example  
have half a point  
are at odds with  
hard-and-fast guidelines  
is open ended  
the... has been less encouraging  
no less a person than x  
bring to a head  
outperform  
take great pain  
establish which is the case  
develop from first principles  
develop from scratch  
bring to a sharper focus  
agreement is in the 2-3 percent range  
take a nosedive  
just enough to  
far outweighs  
from then onward  
in house  
make major headway  
a) a word should be said about b) a few words are in order about c) it is appropriate to provide some comment concerning  
be the driving force behind (something)  
ironclad proof  
is all significant  
is still in its infancy  
ins and outs  
true to size  
be in a poor state of repair  
worker morale  
be second to (something)  
add a new dimension to (something)  

Тема 2. Грамматические вопросы перевода

Life is a verb, not a noun.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (American writer)

 



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