Современные методы нефтедобычи
oil recovery добыча нефти, нефтеотдача
thermal recovery тепловая добыча
detergent вспенивающий агент
hamper тормозить, затруднять
reservoir месторождение, нефтеносный слой
bubble out пузыриться, булькать
gas cap газовая шапка, газовый купол
slug водяная пробка
miscible пособный смешиваться
Task 1. Read and translate the text. Answer the questions:
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Ответьте на вопросы к нему:
Primary, secondary and tertiary recovery
So, what exactly is the purpose of enhanced recovery? Well, as I'm sure you know, crude oil development and production in US oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary recovery, the natural pressure of the reservoir or gravity drives oil into the wellbore, combining with artificial lift techniques (such as pumps) to bring the oil to the surface. But only about 10% of a reservoir's original oil in place is typically produced during primary recovery. Secondary recovery techniques add to the field's productive life by injecting water to displace the oil and drive it to a production wellbore, resulting in the recovery of another 20 to 40% of the original oil in place. However, a lot of the easy- to-produce oil has already been recovered from US oilfields, and so producers are increasingly using tertiary or enhanced oil recovery (also called EOR) techniques that offer us prospects for ultimately producing 30 to 60% or more of a reservoir's original oil in place.
1. What is the difference between primary, secondary and tertiary recovery?
2. Why are US producers using tertiary recovery now?
Task 3. Read the extract and discuss how each method works:
Задание 3. Прочитайте текст и обсудите, как работают разные методы добычи:
Enhanced recovery methods
Three major categories of EOR have been found to be commercially successful in varying degrees. First of all, there's thermal recovery, which involves the introduction of heat, such as the injection of steam to lower the viscosity or thin the heavy viscous oil, and improve its ability to flow through the reservoir. Thermal techniques account for over 50% of US EOR production, primarily in California.
Then there's gas injection, which uses gases such as natural gas, nitrogen or carbon dioxide that expand in a reservoir to push additional oil to a production wellbore, or other gases that dissolve in the oil to lower its viscosity and improve its flow rate. Gas injection accounts for nearly 50% of EOR production in the United States.
And thirdly, there's chemical injection, which can involve the use of long-chained molecules called polymers.
These increase the effectiveness of waterfloods, or the use of detergent-like surfactants, to help lower the surface tension that often prevents oil droplets from moving through a reservoir. Chemical techniques account for less than 1 % of US EOR production. However, these techniques have been hampered by their relatively high cost and, in some cases, by the unpredictability of their effectiveness.
Task 4. Read the extract and make notes on each of the projects:
Задание 3. Прочитайте текст и обсудите, как работают разные методы добычи:
C02 gas injection
The EOR technique that is attracting the most new market interest is carbon dioxide (C02) EOR. New technologies are being developed to produce C02 from industrial applications, such as natural gas processing, fertilizer, ethanol and hydrogen plants in locations where naturally occurring reservoirs are not available. One demonstration at the Dakota Gasification Company's plant in Beulah, North Dakota, is producing C02 and delivering it by a new 204-mile pipeline to the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. Encana, the field's operator, is injecting the C02 to extend the field's productive life, hoping to add another 25 years and as much as 130 million barrels of oil that might otherwise have been abandoned.
We are funding another project in the Hall-Gurney field in Kansas, seeking to demonstrate that C02 EOR can provide energy, economic and environmental benefits. A companion project underway in the Hall-Gurney field involves testing the feasibility of 4D high resolution seismic monitoring of C02 injection in thin, relatively shallow mature carbonate reservoirs. Incorporating this kind of time-lapsed monitoring data into C02-E0R programmes could dramatically improve the efficiency and economics of using the technology in many midcontinent fields.
Task 5. Read and translate the following paragraphs about three types of oil reservoir drive:
Задание 5. Прочитайте и переведите текст о разных типах естественного вытеснения:
Dissolved Gas Drive
When a well is drilled, pressure on the oil in the reservoir can be released and gas can bubble out of the oil. The pressure of the oil forces the oil through the rock into the well. This type of drive reservoir is very inefficient. It has a very rapid decline in both reservoir pressure and oil production rate, as the oil is produced. There is a very rapid increase in the gas/oil ratio near the end of production.
Free Gas Cap Expansion Drive
In some fields, there is a gas cap above the oil which expands in production and puts the oil under pressure. This type of drive shows a moderate fall in reservoir fluid pressure and production as the oil is produced. The gas/oil ratio rises sharply when the oil has nearly all been produced.
Reservoirs with water drive are driven by the expansion of water below or adjacent to the reservoir. As the oil is produced, it is replaced by water. An active water drive exerts almost constant reservoir pressure and oil production throughout the life of the well. Gas/oil remains the same, but eventually, when the reservoir 'goes to water', water production increases dramatically.
Task 6. Read the description of five types of improved recovery. Each has a key phrase missing. Which key phrase belongs to each description and where should it be inserted?
Задание 6. Прочитайте описание современных методов добычи и вставьте ключевую фразу:
| and make it more fluid, in separate slugs, some of the remaining, that dissolves in the oil, to sustain the fire
Once the natural drive of the reservoir is exhausted, oil companies turn to other methods to boost recovery:
1. Waterflood: This technique is usually the first to be tried after primary production. It involves injecting water through injection wells. The water forces the oil through to producing wells. It can recover 5 to 50% of the remaining oil in place.
2. Miscible gas process: This technique involves injecting a gas (usually carbon dioxide or liquid petroleum gas) into the reservoir. It can recover about 35% of the remaining oil.
3. Chemical flood: This technique involves injecting different chemicals, each serving a different purpose, into the depleted reservoir. This recovers around 40% of remaining oil, but can only be used in sandstone reservoirs, not carbonates.
4. Steamflood: This technique involves using heat to make heavy oil more fluid for recovery. Steam is injected into the reservoir to heat the oil. Recovery rates can vary from 25% to 60% of the oil in place.
5. Fire flood: This is another thermal technique in which subsurface oil is set on fire and air is injected into the reservoir. The oil becomes more fluid and flows towards the producing wells. Approximately 30 to 40% recovery is expected with this method.
Практическое занятие 30
dual двойственный, двойной
warning system система оповещения
interference нарушение, вмешательство
tamper proof защищенный от воровства
turnkey system полностью готовая система
intrusion нарушение, неправомерный захват
irrespective of независимо от
regardless of независимо от
threat угроза, опасность
terrain местность, территория
foolproof несложный, понятный всем
Task 1. Read and translate the text. Discuss the questions:
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:
Westminster Dual Purpose Pipeline Security and Leak Detection System
The protection of pipelines against sabotage, illegal tapping and terrorist action, combined with the detection of leaks in buried pipelines, etc., is a high priority in all countries, but until now has been notoriously difficult to achieve.
The Dual Purpose Pipeline Security/Leak Detection System is an entirely new advanced early warning system for the detection of third party interference (TPI) tampering and illegal tapping attempts, as well as locating leaks in buried oil, gas and liquid pipelines.
Leaks, damage, illegal tapping and sabotage to pipelines is a worldwide problem costing pipeline operators millions of dollars a year in disruption and lost production, not to mention loss of life that often occurs. Westminster's unique solution to the problem is to provide a Dual Purpose Pipeline Security and Leak Detection System utilizing a single fibre-optic cable run adjacent to the pipeline.
This system allows the detection of illegal tapping or sabotage of the pipeline, while also providing the benefit of real-time monitoring against any ruptures or leaks.
Early warning of leaks
Early warning of potential disruption
Immediate and accurate location of disturbance
Easy to install and low maintenance
High levels of physical security
Low risk of service interruptions
Why is the system 'dual purpose'? How does it work?
Task 2. Read and act out the dialogue:
Задание 2. Прочитайте и разыграйте диалог:
Vladimir Shukhov: Yes, that sounds interesting, Oliver, but is it too good to be true?
Oliver Matheson: Not at all. What are you thinking of Vladimir?
VS: Well, isn’t the cable subject to electrical interference?
OM: Not at all. It’s completely immune to radiofrequency or electromagnetic interference. It’s been tried and tested in many environments.
VS: And how far afield does each control point cover?
OM: Around 60 kilometres and you can network as many controllers as you want, according to the length of the pipeline.
VS: And how accurate are its detection devices?
OM: Well, for breaches of security, we say that it can detect an intrusion to within 50 metres, while for leaks it’s as little as one metre.
VS: Regardless of how long the pipeline is?
OM: Exactly. Irrespective of the length of the line.
VS: And you say that it can give early warnings of threats?
OM: Yes, as I said, any intrusion can be spotted up to 60 kilometres away.
VS: What about maintenance?
OM: Well, it’s as low-maintenance as it possibly can be. It’s extremely robust and highly reliable. And it works equally well in weather conditions and in all soil types.
VS: OK, so can you give me an idea of the price ...?
Task 3. Prepare a short presentation slide aboutone of the following pipelines:
Задание 3. Подготовьте небольшую презентацию об одном из следующих трубопроводов:
Brent System, Kazakhstan-China
Make notes on the information, such as:
the building of the pipeline – the date, the ownership, etc.
technical information – the length, the capacity, the diameter, the pressure.
any other information – problems, future developments, etc.
Task 4. Read and translate the text:
Задание 4. Прочитайте и переведите текст:
Pipeline networks are composed of several pieces of equipment that operate together to move products from one location to another.
Initial Injection Station: Known also as Supply or Inlet Station, is the beginning of the system, where the product is injected into the line. Storage facilities, pumps or compressors are usually located at these locations.
Partial Delivery Stations: Known also as Intermediate Stations, these facilities allow the pipeline operator to deliver part of the product being transported.
Compressor/Pump Stations: Pumps for liquid pipelines and compressors for gas pipelines, are located along the line to move the product through the pipeline. The location of these stations is defined by the topography of the terrain, the type of product being transported or operational conditions of the network.
Block Valve Stations: These are the first line of protection for pipelines. With these valves, the operator can isolate any segment of the line for maintenance work or isolate a rupture or leak. Block valve stations are usually located every 20 to 30 miles (48 km), depending on the type of pipeline.
Final Delivery Station: Known also as Outlet Stations or Terminals, this is where the product will be distributed to the consumer. It could be a tank terminal for liquid pipelines or a connection to a distribution network for gas pipelines.
Task 5. Fill in the blanks in the sentences below using the figures given in the box. Use the following approximate conversions to help you:
Задание 5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях числительными, данными в рамочке. Используйте данную информацию для перевода в другие единицы измерения:
One mile is around 1.8 kilometres.
There are 12 inches in a foot.
One metre is just under 3 feet.
One inch is approximately 2.5 centimetres.
| 12 and 24 metres long., 2 inches to over 60 inches, 5 and 20 feet per second, a 6-mile stretch, 10 to 120 centimetres, of about 1 to 2 metres
1. The first pipeline covered _____ from an oilfield in Pennsylvania to the nearest railway station.
2. A typical diameter for an oil pipeline ranges from ______ .
3. Pipelines are normally buried at a depth _____ .
4. Oil flows at a speed of between _____ .
5. Natural gas pipelines have a greater range of diameters than oil pipelines, varying from _____ .
6. A typical length of pipeline is between _____ .
Task 6. Match the two parts of each sentence. Some may have more than one solution:
Задание 6. Сопоставьте части предложений. В некоторых предложениях возможен более чем один вариант:
| 1. It is notoriously
|| a. to electromagnetic interference.
| 2. This is an entirely
|| b. system monitoring.
| 3. We are dealing with worldwide
|| c. solution to the problem.
| 4. We can offer a unique
|| d. security problems.
| 5. You will have real-time
|| e. robust machine.
| 6. It is completely immune
|| f. reliable employee.
| 7. It is an extremely
|| g. new system.
| 8. He is a highly
|| h. foolproof technique.
| 9. It is an absolutely
|| i. difficult to achieve.
Практическое занятие 31
crude carrier нефтеналивное судно, танкер
spare oil tanker запасной, свободный танкер
tanker fleet танкерный флот
surge up нарастать, увеличиваться
earnings прибыль, доход
profit прибыль, доход
oil spill утечка, разлив нефти
slick of oil нефтяное пятно
seafront приморская часть города
monsoon дождливый сезон, муссон
seep просачиваться, протекать
tank vessel наливное судно, цистерна
grounding посадка на мель
hull failure пробои в корпусе корабля
Task 1. Read the extracts from three articles about oil tankers. Which article is from a) a daily newspaper, b) a specialist oil and gas industry magazine, c) an online encyclopedia?
Задание 1. Прочитайте три отрывка из статей о нефтяных баржах. Определите, какой отрывок из а) ежедневной газеты, б) специального журнала по нефти и газу, в) электронной энциклопедии:
A lack of spare oil tankers and an increase in OPEC production are driving shipping rates to record highs, said Morten Arntzen, CEO of Overseas Shipholding Group, the largest US-based oil tanker owner. ‘This is the first time in 31 years that we’ve had close to 100% utilization of the world’s tanker fleet,’ Arntzen said last week. Higher rates caused third-quarter earnings for tanker owners to surge up to ten times over from a year earlier. Overseas Shipholding boosted earnings by a factor of five, and Teekay saw its profit jump more than tenfold. Fourth-quarter earnings may show steeper gains because rates have climbed since late September. Royal Dutch-Shell Group of Companies chartered the Crown Unity, one of Overseas Shipholding’s 22 very large crude carriers, to transport two million barrels of oil from the Arabian Gulf to Europe last week for $183,113 a day, according to data compiled by Bloomberg and a formula on the website of Norway-based ship broker R.S. Platou. That’s more than ten times Overseas Shipholding’s break-even cost of $17,400 a day for giant crude carriers.
Pakistani port officials warned yesterday that they faced a major oil spill along the southern coastline after a tanker that ran aground in heavy storms began to crack open. A growing slick of oil washed ashore along the main beaches outside Karachi, bringing toxic fumes and hundreds of dead fish, sea birds and turtles. More than 1,000 policemen, equipped with masks, were deployed to close the seafront. Around ten miles of beach, which every evening is normally filled with families, has been closed. The single-hull tanker, Tasman Spirit, ran aground in heavy monsoon storms more than two weeks ago. Salvage experts managed to retrieve some of the 67,500 tonnes of Iranian crude oil it was carrying, but more than 40,000 tonnes remained on board, port officials said. If the rest seeped into the sea, it would become one of the world’s worst oil spills.
Oil tankers are only one source of oil spills. According to the United States Coast Guard, 35.7% of the volume of oil spilled in the United States from 1991 to 2004 came from tank vessels (ships/barges), 27.6% from facilities and other non-vessels, 19.9% from non-tank vessels, and 9.3% from pipelines; 7.4% came from mystery spills. On the other hand, only 5% of the actual spills came from oil tankers, while 51.8% came from other kinds of vessels. The detailed statistics for 2004 show tank vessels responsible for somewhat less than 5% of the number of total spills, but more than 60% of the volume. In summary, spills are much more rare, but much more serious on tank vessels than on non-tank vessels. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation has tracked 9,351 accidental spills that have occurred since 1974. According to this study, most spills result from routine operations, such as loading cargo, discharging cargo and taking on fuel oil. 91% of the operational oil spills are small, resulting in less than seven metric tons per spill. On the other hand, spills resulting from accidents, like collisions, groundings, hull failures and explosions, are much larger, with 84% of these involving losses of over 700 metric tons.
Task 2. Read the extract from an informal discussion between two managers from Overseas Shipholding, Rob McAndrew and Barry Delaney. Complete the conversation using information from Extract 1 to help you. You will need to change the wording slightly to suit the conversation better, but there are no fixed answers:
Задание 2. Прочитайте диалог двух менеджеров из Overseas Shipholding. Закончите фразы, используя информацию из 1 текста для чтения. Сделайте необходимые изменения в предложениях из текста так, чтобы они подходили в диалог:
RM: Have you seen our profit figures for the third quarter?
BD: Not yet. Is it good news?
RM: Yes, definitely. (1) _____ .
BD: That’s excellent.
RM: It is, but it’s not as good as Teekay’s figures.
BD: Really, how did they do?
BD: That’s incredible. Why is the industry doing so well?
RM: Well, two reasons really. (3)_____.
BD: I see. How much do we charge to charter a tanker?
BD: And what’s our break-even?
RM: Somewhere in the region of (5)_____.
BD: So we’re making nearly 1,000% profit!
RM: That’s about right, yes. Amazing, isn’t it!
Task 3. From the information provided in Extract 3, complete the following statistical table showing the sources of oil spills in the United States between 1991 and 2004. Write 'not known' where there is insufficient information to complete the table. What can be concluded from the data?
Задание 3. Заполните таблицу статистическими данными об источниках утечки нефти в США в период с 1991 по 2004, используя информацию из 3 текста для чтения. В случае если не хватает информации, впишите 'not known' в соответствующие графы таблицы. Какое заключение вы можете сделать по данным таблицы?