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КОНТРОЛЬНЫЙ ПЕРЕВОД (Quiz)

Переведите учебный текст „Колобок" с листа без за­пинки. Вам поможет в этом Список”„А " В тексте 11 русских фразеологизмов.

Колобок

Однажды зимой сказал дед бабке : „Очень кушать хочет­ся! Испеки, бабка, колобок". Бабка в слезы: ,,Я бы испекла его в один момент, да муки нет!" „Не плачь, бабка, - говорит ей дед. - Возьми себя в руки, да и поскреби по сусекам. Я стар, да не лыком шит: плохого не посоветую."

Помела бабка по сусекам и нашла две горсти муки. Ис­пекла она колобок и положила его на подоконник остывать. Не долго лежал Колобок на подоконнике. Прыгнул он на пол, по­том - за дверь, да и покатился по дорожке, которая вела к лесу. Катится он и песенку поет:

„Русский я колобок.

Укатиться я смог

от бабушки и деда,

что хотели хлеба..."

Тут Колобок перестал петь, так как увидел Волка, которо­му, как известно, палец в рот не клади.

„Рад тебя видеть, Колобок. Ты о чем поешь?" - спросил Волк. Спел ему Колобок свою песенку, а к ней добавил такие слова:

„Как ветер бегать я могу

И от тебя, Волк, убегу!"

Покатился Колобок прочь от Волка как можно скорее, а навстречу ему Медведь, который обычно всю зиму спит, а тут держал себя в руках и совсем не спал. Колобок спел Медведю свою песенку и быстро покатился дальше. Тут навстречу ему Лиса. Как известно, Лиса всем любит наводить тень на плетень и говорить, будто чиста как ангел, а у самой рыльце в пушку. Послушала Лиса песенку и говорит: „Бедняжка я, глухая стала как пень. Сядь ты мне на язычок и спой свою песенку еще раз да погромче."

Колобок сел ей на язык, но песенку спеть не успел, по­тому как Лиса съела его в мгновение ока. Облизнулась Лиса и сказала: "Что ж, не у всех сказок бывает счастливый ко­нец".

Если перевести „ сказку" на английский язык без запинки не получается, просмотрите нижеследующий перевод и тог­да, возможно, перевод „ с листа" у вас получится.

The Roll

One winter the Granddad said to the Grandma: "I'm as hungry as a hunter. Could you please bake a roll?" The Grandma burst into tears: "I would've baked it in no time, but there is no flour!" "Don't you cry, my dear," the Granddad said. "Pull yourself together. You'd better scrape the bottom of the barrel. I'm old, but nobody's fool: I wouldn't give you bad advice."



The Grandma scraped the barrel and found two handfuls of flour. She baked a roll and put it on the windowsill to cool it down.

The Roll did not stay on the windowsill for long. He jumped onto the floor, went behind the door and rolled down the path that led to the forest. He was rolling along while singing his song: "I'm a Russian Roll. I rolled away from them all -from Grandma and Granddad who wanted bread..."

The Roll stopped singing because he saw the Wolf who was known to be as smart as a steel trap.

"Glad to see you, Roll. What's in your song?" asked the Wolf. The Roll sang his song to the Wolf and added to the song the follow­ing words: "I can roll like lightning, too, and I'll roll away from you!"

The Roll rolled away from the Wolf as fast as he could and then met the Bear who usually sleeps through the winter, but that time the Bear kept himself in hand and did not sleep at all. The Roll sang his song to the Bear and quickly rolled away only to meet the Fox. As is known, the Fox likes to throw dust in everybody's eyes saying that he is as clean as a hound's tooth but, in fact, doesn't keep his hands clean.

The Fox listened to the song and said: "I am as deaf as a post, poor me! Could you sit on my tongue and sing your song again a bit louder?

The Roll sat down on the Fox's tongue but there was no time for singing because the Fox ate the Roll up in the blink of an eye. The Fox licked the lips and said: "Well, not every fairy-tale has a happy ending."

Answer keys

Colors

5.11. a 2. a 3. b 4. a 5. b 6. b 7. a

5.21. blacked out 2. paint the town red 3. in the black 4. green with envy 5. the pot calling the kettle black 6. a bolt from the blue 7. in the pink 8. out of the blue

5.31. black 2. blue 3. black 4. blue 5. red 6. red 7. red 8. green

5.4in the red; in the pink; in the black; the pot calling the kettle black; a bolt from the blue; give someone / something the green light; until you are blue in the face; black out; paint the town red; see red; (look) through rose-colored glasses; green with envy; out of the blue; roll out the red carpet (for someone); black or white; in black and white.

5.5Possible answers: 1. He’s been looking at it through rose-colored glasses. 2. Let’s go out and paint the town red. 3. Absolutely. It was like a bolt from the blue. or It came out of the blue. 4. You really should wait until you have something in black and white.


СЕМИНАР 3

Exercise 1. Study the idioms. Hands and shoulders

idiom meaning example
at first hand from seeing or experiencing directly it must be a great comfort to you to have all the news at first hand
fall into someone’s hands to be caught or controlled by someone A letter intended for me fell into your hands… and then you used it.
give someone a hand, also give a hand to someone to help someone If everything else fails, I think I’ll go into the green line. You couldn’t give me a hand, could you, Mr. Snape?
have a hand in doing something to take part in an activity ‘I don’t believe he’ll come of his free will.’ ‘In that case, God knows! I won’t have a hand in caging him.’
go hand in hand to be present together She was of those women in whom utter devotion can still go hand in hand with a doubting soul.
have your hands full to be very busy I’ll talk to Hilary, but his hands are always full.
keep your hand in (something) to continue to be involved in something I’m coming back… not in the old way, of course. Just with an investment here and there. I want to keep my hand in, to have the feel of the market.
(give a) thumbs down to someone / something to show disapproval of or opposition to something The White House has given thumbs down to the chrysanthemum bill at least twice to my knowledge.
(give a) thumbs up to someone / something to show approval of or support something But where justice ends, mercy may begin. Should the man really die, only the Home Secretary decides… Sometimes the thumb is up, sometimes down. Not in public… as in a Roman gladiatorial arena. In Senate and in silence.
lend a (helping) hand, also lend someone a hand to help do something I don’t know what I’d do if I didn’t know you’d always lend me a helping hand when I needed it, Clyde.
stick / stand out like a sore thumb to be easily noticed as different Rankin said, ‘The authenticity of that painting stands out like a sore thumb.’
try your hand at something to attempt to do something I thought it time to try my hand at more serious work.
wait on someone hand and foot to do everything for another person ‘You’re not starting right with a man,’ Mary cautioned. ‘You wait on him hand and foot. You’ll spoil him if you don’t watch out.’
wash your hands of someone / something to end all involvement with someone or something Higgins. Mrs. Pearce, this is Eliza’s father. He has come to take her away. Give her to him (He goes back to the piano, with an air of washing his hands of the whole affair.)
a shoulder to cry on someone who gives you sympathy when you are upset Here you come in here with this megillah about a flat tire and how your brother-in-law stole your jack and how your arthritis is kicking up and all that kind of crap - what do you think I am, some sort of shoulder to cry on?
stand shoulder to shoulder to support one another during a difficult time If he were free he would be fighting shoulder to shoulder with us to win the strike.

Exercise 2. Beginnings and endings

Match the beginnings and endings of these sentences.

1. The whole town stood shoulder to shoulder a. you’ll stand out like a sore thumb.  
2. He worked as a journalist, and he also around here b. after the earthquake.  
3. You should do some of the work c. lend a hand where they were needed.
4. If you wear jeans to the party, d. tried his hand at writing fiction.
5. He expected his children to e. instead of being waited on hand and foot all the time.
6. He was angry, and she was afraid that f. I’ll be glad to give you a hand.  
7. My husband gave a big thumbs down g. he would wash his hands of her.
8. If you have any trouble with your homework, h. to my idea of getting a new car.  
9. He has retired, but he comes in Fridays i. we have a hand in designing it.  
10. She has her hands full j. into rebel hands.
11. The army was worried that weapons might fall k. to keep his hand in.  
12. We don’t put our label on anything unless l. raising eight children.  
13. My father had just died, and I needed m. go hand in hand.  
14. Experience and ability don’t always n. hand how the project I was going.  
15. It was a chance to see at first o. a shoulder to cry on.

Exercise 3. Sentence completion

Use idioms from the table to complete the following sentences. You may have to change the form of some words.

1. Can you ____________________?

2. We were happy because the project got a ____________________.

3. I’d like to thank everyone who ____________________ planning this event.

4. I’m sorry I can’t help you – I’ve really ____________________.

Exercise 4. Correct or incorrect?

Are these sentences correct? Some have an extra word. Say if the sentences are right or wrong, and circle the extra words.

1. Give Mom a hand while I wash the dishes.

2. Make sure it doesn’t fall into the wrong of hands.

3. They’ve got their hands full with all those orders.

4. It’s fantastic. Has Paul had a hand in this project?

5. Money and good sense don’t always go hand in a hand.

6. Listen to the whole song before you give it a thumbs down.

7. It is important to experience something like this at the first hand.

Exercise 5. Translation

Find English equivalents for the following phrases.

Быть за; поощрять; разрешать

Быть очевидным, само собой разумеющимся

быть против; запрещать; бойкотировать

взяться, приняться за что-л., заняться чем-л.; пробовать свои силы

не иметь свободной минуты, захлопотаться

непосредственно, из первых рук

плечо к плечу, в тесном единении

поддержка и понимание, «жилетка», чтобы поплакаться

попасть в чьи-л. руки; перейти в чьи-л. руки

продолжать заниматься; не терять ловкости, сноровки

протянуть кому-л. руку помощи

рука об руку, вместе, сообща, совместно

умыть руки, снять с себя ответственность

участвовать в чем-л., приложить руку к чему-л.

хорошо обслуживать кого-л., делать все для кого-л.

Exercise 6. What do you say?

Using idioms from the table, how would you respond to the following comments and questions?

1. I’m never going to finish all this work in time.

2. I’m so upset. I don’t know what to do.

3. I’d like to do some painting, but I don’t know whether I’d be any good at it.

4. Will your department support us if we take this to court?

5. When he comes home from college, Jack’s really lazy around the house.

6. Sam used to be a lot of fun, but now he’s involved with some really dangerous people.

Exercise 7.Now write

Write a paragraph about something that you would like to try your handat some day. Explain why it interests you.

Exercise 8. Of the following sentences pick out phrase­ological units with the word hand. Give equivalents to them.

1. Cowperwood had no hand in this. (Dr.) 2. On the other hand the old lady, as she was compelled to admit, was good-natured and good-hearted. (Ch.B.) 3. I find you rather alarming, when I examine you close at hand ... . (Ch.B.) 4. I was distressed on all hands. (Ln.) 5. Finally, the reports were that the governess had «come round» everybody, wrote Sir Pitt's letter's, did his business, managed his accounts — had the upper hand of the whole house ... . (Th.) 6. Will it be good for Maijorie to know of your urgency? Won't she have the whip hand of you for ever after? (Pr.) 7. «You are getting out of hand,» his wife said to him. (Aldr.) 8. In ten minutes they were hand in glove. (Dr.) 9. Again, if not to have a confident became too wearing. Uncle Adrian was the obvious choice; partly because he knew at first hand something of the East, but chiefly because he was Uncle Adrian. (G.) 10. As his daughter's nearest friend, he demanded with a high hand a statement of the late captain's accounts. (Th.) 11. That lady had a hand in most pies, I fancy. (G.) 12. Why, would you like to try your hand at something? (Pr.) 13. She was of those women in whom utter devotion can still go hand in hand with a doubting soul.(G.) 14. I think we can win hands down. 15. Jane, if aid is wanted, I'll seek it at your hands; I promise you that. (Ch. B.)

Exercise 9. Explain the following phraseological units, make up 5 sentences employing the given idioms

1. To hit below the belt. 2. To go beyond the mark. 3. To turn one's coat. 4. To open the ball. 5. To beat about the bush. 6. Touch and go. 7. To add fuel to the flame 8. To throw dust into the eyes. 9. To have a firm seat in the saddle. 10. The bird is flown. 11. A day after (before) the fair. 12. An Irish bull. 13. Skeleton in the cupboard (closet). 14. To smell a rat. 15. To go heart and soul into something.

Exercise 10.Translate the following zoosemic idioms.

1. The black dog. 2. Clever dog. 3. Dead dog. 4. Dirty dog. 5. Gaydog. 6. Hot dog. 7. Lazy dog. 8. Lucky dog. 9. Red dog. 10.Sea dog. 11. Spotted dog.

1. The golden calf. 2. Lost sheep. 3. Fighting cock. 4. Milk cow. 5. Old bird. 6. Dark horse.

Exercise 11. Translate the following sentences. Pick out phraseological units and comment on them.

1. The advocates are men who have taken a doctor's degree at college. (D.) 2. Jane is putting the finishing touches to her appearance. (Mg.) 3. I thought it useless to beat about the bush. The fact is, his people aren't keen on his lunching with you. (Mg.) 4. Yates didn't take the hint. (Hm.) 5. June saw she had played a wrong card and broke down. (G) 6. She has got some silly bee in her bonnet about Eliza (Sh.) 7. Then he heard the rattle of the night watchman going his rounds. It broke upon the silence of the night so harshly that it made him jump out of his skin. (Mg.) 8. I'm a person who likes to cross a «t» and dot an «i». (Mg.) 9. She was only too inclined to take advantage of his weakness. (G.) 10. Little Jon could see that he played the second fiddle to her in his father's heart. (G.) 11. And with his poor brain he was trying desperately to make head or tail of the wonderful things he heard. (Mg.) 12. I couldn't forget it and I took revenge. (Ch.B.) 13. I think I should have gone mad. (Mg.) 14. A fine solicitor he is, not the man to let the grass grow under his feet. (Sn.) 15. «Are you very rich?» «No, living from hand to mouth.» (Sh.) 16. He had let_the cat out of the bag. (G.) 17. She was the life and soul of the party. (Mg.) 18. As soon as 1 said it, I knew it was a false step. (Sn.) 19. Martin is a dark horse. 1 should like to know what he wants for the college. (Sn.) 20. Either complete frankness, or complete ignoring — and that meant living with the sword of Damocles above his head. (G.) 21. «I perceive,» said Jolyon, «that you are trying to kill two birds with one stone.» (G.) 22. I don't see how I can avoid putting my foot into my mouth without you, do you? (G.) 23. I've put my foot into it with him. (G.) 24. You fool, why do you catch at a straw? (Th.) 25. He was catching at shadows. (Mg.) 26. He will be a fish out of water in England. (Mg.) 27. After all, what's eight pounds? A drop in the ocean. (Mg.) 28. There was a time when the black sheep of the family was sent from my country to America; now apparently he's sent from your country to Europe. (Mg.) 29. Don't be a dog in the manger, Sheppey! (Mg.) 30. And he's bound to kick the bucket any day now. (Gd.) 31. His second impulse therefore was to let the sleeping dogs lie. (D.) .

Exercise 12. Pick out phraseological units. Comment on their meaning, type and structure.

1. Was his story of photographs to develop a lie invented upon the spur of the moment? (Chr.) 2. Of these four, I was thinking, Martin was by a long way the most realistic. (Sn.) 3. I was reading when Kosti said to me out of a blue sky: «I'm getting out of here. D'you want to come with me?»(Mg.) 4. After all he is a nice boy, and it wouldn't help to give him the cold shoulder. (Mg.) 5. Then I can publish a paper or two by hook or by crook. (Sn.) 6. We are going forward by leaps and bounds. (Mg.) 7. ... he said he'd give me board and lodging. (Mg.) 8. I slept like a log. (Mg.) 9. Elliott told me that, without stirring a finger, he was nearly twice as rich in 1926 as he had been in 1918. (Mg.) 10. Well, to cut a long story short, Isabel asked her to come to the apartment one day at three so that they could go together for the final fitting (Mg.) 11. «Are you quite comfortable in that chair?» asked Larry. «As comfortably as I can be when my head is giving me hell. «Well, let yourself go quite slack. Take it easy.» (Mg.)12. In the long run, you decided it really was a fraud. (Sn.) 13. I regard it as desirable to strike while the iron's hot. (Sn.) 14. I don't know how George has been making both ends meet. (Mg.) 15. «They're making money hand over fist, my dear fellow,» Elliott told me. (Mg.) 16. It's extremely inconvenient. It's just red tape. (Mg.) 17. You can't let him play ducks and drakes with our money like that. (Mg.) 18. She was not on easy terms with Tim Burke. (Md.) 19. He was not at a loss. (Sn.) 20. He was in debt up to his ears. (D.)

Exercise 13. Pick out phraseological units. Explain their meaning and comment on their structure.

1. No man could tell what he would do if he were in the shoes of another man. (G.) 2. «ls that young man a snake in the grass or a worm in the bud?» «A very nice boy.» (G.) 3. Look at him, Amelia dear. Such a bull in a china shop I never saw. (Th.) 4. Fleur — so far as he knew— cut her coat according to her cloth. (G.) 5. They were almost Forsytes. They would never grasp at a shadow and miss the substance. (G.) 6. Secrecy, precaution went by the board. Bowing his head against her breast, he poured it all out. [G.) 7. Ten to one he isn't in. (G.) 8. The meeting was in full swing when he arrived. (G.) 9. George knew that his papa was about to take a nap. (Th.) 10. All the wind was out of her sails, she muttered something and went off. (Th.) 11. He seemed to lose heart in the business after that. (J.K.J.) 12. You'll have to be looking out for a nice safe investment then. Don't put too many eggs into one basket, that's all. (Mg.) 13. I was at my wits’ end. (Mg.) 14. My common sense told me that I was making a mountain out of a molehill. [Mg.) 15. I would have been a pretty kettle of fish if nurse Wayland had seen me like this. (Mg.) 16. I want to stay and talk shop with him. (Md.) 17. Do you think one might just sip some sherry before our guests arrive to try it? I must confess, I need some Dutch courage. (Md.) 18. Freddy was a quick-tempered man, unused to opposition and he gave George the rough side of his tongue. (Mg.) 19. Had Fleur cooked her own goose by trying to make too sure? (G.) 20. He well knew more sharply today than ever before that he was treading on dangerous ground. (Dr.) 21. And actually plays the big drum for her in public because he has fallen head over ears in love with her.

Exercise 14. phrasal verbs. Read and memorize.

BREAK

... DOWN 1. сломать(ся), выйти из строя to go wrong, to stop functioning. e.g. The machine has broken down. 2. разрушать(ся); нарушать (планы); расстроиться, упасть духом to crush, to col­lapse. e.g. His health broke down. They broke down our plans. She broke down completely and fainted.

,,. OFF обрывать, внезапно прекращать to stop doing smth. sud­denly. e.g. They broke off the conversation.

... OUT неожиданно начаться, вспыхнуть (о войнах, пожарах, болезнях, ссорах) to begin suddenly (of wars, fires, diseases, quarrels, etc), e.g. A fire broke out during the night.

... UP 1. прекращать занятия, закрываться на каникулы (о школе) to end (he school term. e.g. Tbe school broke up in May. The school-children will break up next week. 2.расходиться (о группе людей); разгонять to separate; to disperse, e.g. The crowd broke up.

... WITH порывать с кем-л., чем-л. to cease associating with smb., to do away with smth. e.g. He has broken with all his old friends. It's difficult for him to break with his old habit.

Exercise15. Read and translate the sentences

1. She broke off abruptly, covered with confusion, at her boldness in speaking to him like this.

2. Happily we shall break up early and you can go home.

3. They all broke off work for once and went to the sea.

4. The police tried to break up a protest meeting at Madrid University.

5. He seemed so powerful that it looked as if a rebellion was always on the point of breaking out from anybody who came in contact with him.

6. She broke off her engagement.

7. Applause broke out when the ballet was over.

8. She had broken with me. her prolonged silence indicated that.

9. That was the end of that party. I never saw a party break up so quietly.

10. He broke down in his cabin when he had to say good-bye to his mother.

11. The technical title of the feast which broke out annually on the first Monday in August in the park of Blandings Castle was the Standings Parva School Treat.

Exercise 16. Replace the italicized phrases by the verb to break with appropriate particles:

1. She holds strong views on such matters and will stop talking whenever the subject comes up. 2. As two machines went wrong the manager had to use emergency equipment to prevent a delay in production. 3. She's got a bitter tongue, no wonder her friends will have nothing to do with her. 4. "Move on, go about your business", the policeman said to a group of curious onlookers. 5. He was used to the carefree atmosphere of the studio and found it hard to get rid of his old habits. 6. "I'm going up to London when the school is over for summer holidays", said Peter. 7. The disease spread unexpectedly in several villages of the area. 8. "Does the arrangement still stand?" "No, she's upset it all by that idea of hers". 9. After many years of overwork his health was impaired and he had to retire. 10. Their conversation stopped when they saw a stranger come in. 11. I wonder if he got out of the habit of pulling everybody's leg.

Exercise 17. Supply the appropriate particles:

1. He broke … twice when giving evidence of the accident he was involved in. 2. A blizzard that was sweeping all around broke …our arrangements of an outing. 3. Have you got anything to break ... the door with? You see I've left my key in and now I can't get in. 4. I didn't expect the party to break … so early. 5. The school breaks … in May and you might just as well take your children to the South as the weather isn't very hot there in June. 6. This story brought back the day when the war broke … .7. "You should break ... your past", the judge said to the accused. 8. The negotiations broke ... because neither side would compromise. 9. They were arguing about some­thing but broke … when someone came into the room. 10. The First World War broke ... in the summer of 1914. 11. To their great disappointment the party broke … in confusion.

Exercise 18. Translate the following sentences:

1. Музыка вдруг прекратилась, и из окна послышались голоса и смех. 2. Мотор вышел из строя, потому что вы неправильно обращались с прибором", — сказал инженер. 3. Потеряв работу, Джон оказался в очень тяжелом положении. Скоро многие из его друзей порвали с ним. 4. Когда началась война, многие студенты добровольно пошли на фронт. 5. Трудно порвать с укоренившимися привычками. 6. Переговоры были прерваны по независящим от нас причинам. 7. Дети заканчивают занятия через две недели. 8. Когда они услышали, что к ним кто-то приближается, они сразу оборвали разговор. 9. Машина вышла из строя, и мы отстали от остальных. 10. Когда молодой человек увидел, что машина подъехала, он внезапно замолчал и бросился к ближайшей телефонной будке. 11. В 1348 году в Англии разразилась эпидемия чумы. 12. Почти все студенты разошлись, и лишь несколько человек по-прежнему горячо обсуждали что-то. 13. Вам нужно отучиться от неприятной привычки прерывать говорящего.

BRING...

... ABOUT вызывать to cause to happen, е.g. Nobody could guess What brought about the quarrel.

... BACK напоминать to remind, to call to mind. e.g. The story brought back the days of their friendship.

... DOWN снижать (цены. отметку и т.д.) to cause to fall. e.g. The good harvest brought down the price of wheat. These mistakes have brought down your mark.

... IN 1. выносить, to take in. e,.g. Don't forget to bring the suit-case in. 2. приносить (доход) to yield as a profit, e.g. I don't know how much the new factory will bring in. 3. приводить, упоминать to mention, e.g. I want you to bring in some facts to be more convincing.

... OUT 1. публиковать, выпускать в.свет; ставить (пьесу) to cause to appear, to bring to the public notice, e.g. When are you going, to bring out your new book? They have Just brought out a new plау. 2. выявлять to make clear, to show. e.g. How skilful he should be to bring out the importance of that minor factor

… OVER переубедить to persuade smb. to accept a previously opposed suggestion, e.g. What they said and demonstrated brought him over (to their opinion).

„.ROUND приходить в себя (to restore to consciousness, e.g. She fainted when she heard the news but a little brandy soon brought her round.

... UP 1. воспитывать to look after during childhood, to educate, e.g. She brought up four children. It rests with the parents and school to bring up children to be good citizens of the country. 2. поднимать вопрос с целью обсуждения to raise for discussion, to call attention to. e.g.. She is sure to bring up the matter at the meeting.

EXERCISE 19. Read and translate the sentences:

1. I see exactly how I can bring in your joke when I have to speak at our luncheon club.

2. He had earlier come to the conclusion that police work tended to brutalize a certain type of man — or that it brought out a latent brutality in that type.

3. They were willing to take advantage of an accomplished fact but wanted to shift on to someone else the responsibility of bringing it out.

4. And if I'm wrong then 1’11 never bring up the damned, subject again.

5. "You're wonderfully calm". "Yes, I was brought up never to make a fuss".

6. "The boy's had bad dreams", the sergeant said. "Thought the house was on fire, I expect. I've brought up six of them".

7. "... in the twentieth century!" She brought out those last words like the ace of trumps.

8. The sight of that heather brings back the happy days we spent in Scotland,

9. The publishers are going to bring out a new edition of that book.

10. The servants brought in tea and after tea we bade the com­pany farewell and got into the car.

11. "I really believe you have stopped worrying. What brought about the change?" "My troubles are more real than they used to be".

12. His death alone could save her lover, and she should bring death about.

Exercise 20. Replace the italicized phrases by the verb to bring with appropriate particles:

1. The scientists work against time to get at the virus causing this contagious disease. 2. This snapshot is very dear to me. It reminds me of the time spent with the people who helped me to find my feet in life. ЗУ This medicine is sure to lower your temperature. 4. Had you produced some valid arguments you would have easily convinced them. 5. The characters shown in this story are typical and true to life. 6. The investigation is sure to expose some surprising things. 7. He has gone through a serious operation but good nursing will soon help him to recover. 8. When educating children we ought to implant in our children a love of work. 9. You shouldn't have raised that question in his presence.

Exercise 21. Supply the appropriate particles:

1. The introduction of new, technical devices brought ... the desired effect. 2. This story brought... the hard time they had gone through shoulder to shoulder, hand in hand. 3. Small incomes and poor hous­ing conditions brought ... the birth-rate in a number of European countries. 4. Everybody came down upon him: "What made you bring … this unpleasant subject? Aren't you aware of the fact she hasn't got over her disappointment yet?" 5. Disputed problems always bring … the contradictions which may lie deep in still waters. 6. If these facts don't bring him ... then there is nothing to rack one's wits about. 7. Arthur wrote in his letter: "I was brought … to believe in God but God is a thing made of clay". 8. "You are eighteen now", the father said to John. "You must go out to work and bring … share of the family income". 10. When it started raining we brought the deck chairs .

Exercise 22. Translate the following sentences:

1. Ее дети совсем отбились от рук. Она не умеет их воспитывать. 2. Дайте ей понюхать нашатырный спирт, это приведет ее в себя. 3. Он очень упрям. Если он вобьет что-либо в голову, его трудно переубедить. 4. Никто не знал, что вызвало поломку машины. 5. Запах сирени напомнил ей деревню, где она провела детство, б. Эти недостатки снижают значение его работы. 7. Белая фигура танцовщика четко выделялась на темном фоне. 8. Несколько дней тому назад была выпушена первая книга этого молодого поэта. 9. Он привел новые данные, которые помогли полнее осветить этот вопрос. 10. Можно вносить мебель, полы уже покрашены. 11. Когда Браун возглавил компанию, завод стал приносить большую прибыль.

Exercise23. ENGLISH PROVERBS. Memorize the following proverbs in which the Past Indefinite Tense is used. Point out the regular and irregular verbs giving three forms of the latter.

1. Care killed a cat.

2. Faint heart never won fair lady.

3. When I lent I had a friend; when I asked he was unkind.

4. The pot called the kettle black.

5. The golden age was never the present age.

6. A bad shearer never had a good sickle.

7. Too much curiosity lost Paradise.

8. Curiosity killed the cat.

9. He who pleased everybody died before he was born.

10. A little bird told me.

11. It just came and went.

12. Almost never killed a fly.

13. He who never climbed never fell.

14. If you want a pretence to whip a dog say that he ate a frying-pan.

15. Since Adam was a boy.

Exercise 24. Fill in the blank spaces of the following proverbs and sayings with the verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense given in brackets at the end.

1. Almost never... a fly. (to kill)

2. As good luck as ... the cow that... herself with her own horn, (to have, to stick)

3. He who never..., never.... (to climb, to fall)

4. If you want a pretence to. whip a dog, say that he... a frying-pan, (to eat)

5. When you ... Just a twinkle in your father's eye. (to be)

6. Since Adam ... a boy. (to be)

7. It just... and .... (to come, to go)

8. His tongue ... him. (to fail)

Exercise 25. Turn the following into proverbs and sayings by completing them. Use the Past Indefinite Tense.

1. When I lent I had a friend ...

2. He who never climbed ...

3. If you. want a pretence to whip a dog ...

4. As good luck as had a cow ...

5. It just came ...

Exercise 26. Give English equivalents of the following proverbs and sayings using the Past Indefinite Tense.

1. У плохого косаря всегда серп виноват.

2. Любопытство до добра не доводит. (Много будешь знать, скоро состаришься).

3. Робость мешает успеху.

4. Говорил горшку котелок: уж больно ты черен, дружок. (Сам-то ты хорош).

5. Повезло, как той корове, которая боднула себя своим рогом.

6. Слухом земля полнится. (Сорока на хвосте принесла. Мне об этом рассказали по секрету).

7. Что было, то сплыло.

8. Коли быть собаке битой, найдется и палка. (При желании к каждому можно придраться).

9. Заботы и кошку уморят.

10. На всех не угодишь.

11. Не ошибается тот, кто ничего не делает.

12. Осторожность никогда не мешает.

Exercise 27. ФЕ с союзом and .Take the idioms down into your vocabulary, make up a story of 10 sentences. Make sure to use as many as 10 udioms

(to be) art and part (in;) - быть причастньм, соучастником;

fair and square - честный, открытый, прямой;

high and dry - выброшенный на мель (о судах), покинутый в беде, отставший ог жизни;

by hook or by crook - всеми правдами и неправдами, ~ не мытьем, так катаньем;

to be out and about - встать после болезни;

to pay scot and lot - разделять общее бремя;

wear and tear - износ, порча, утомление, усушка и утруска;

heads or tails - орел или решка;

hit or miss - как попало, наугад,

(not) a jot or (a) tittle - ничуть, нисколько, ни на йоту;

to kill or cure - либо вылечить, либо отправить на гот свет;

to mend or end } либо исправить, либо испортить

to make or mar }

(not) for love or money любой ценой;

more or less - более или менее, приблизительно;

neck or nothing = либо пан либо пропал;

neither here nor there = ни к селу, ни к городу;

neither rhyme nor reason =~ ни складу, ни ладу;

now or never - теперь или никогда;

rain or shine - что бы то ни было, при всех обстоятельствах;

to sink or swim - была не была =~ либо пан, либо пропал;

to stand or fail - погибнуть или победить;

(to play) fast and loose - поступать непоследовательно, безответственно, вести двойную игру;

first and last - в общем и целом;

from head to heels - целиком и полностью;

give and take - компромисс, взаимные уступки, обмен любезностями,

колкостями;

here and there - повсюду и везде;

hide and seek - прятки (игра);

one and all - все вместе, все как один;

right and left - повсюду, во всех направлениях; без устали;

through thick and thin - при всех обстоятельствах, несмотря ни на какие

препятствия;

touch and go - риск, критическое, опасное положение;

ups and downs - превратности судьбы, взлеты и падения;

as bold as brass - нахальный, наглый, бессовестный;

as cross as two sticks - в плохом настроении, не в духе =~ злой как черт;

as dead as a doornail - бездыханный, без признаков жизни;

as deaf as an adder - глухая тетеря, глух как пень;

as dull as ditch water - невыносимо нудный, «скука зеленая»;

as fit as a fiddle - в добром здравии; в лучшем виде, совсем здоровый;

as good as gold - очень хороший =~ золотой человек;

as hard as nails - выносливый, бесчувственный, безжалостный;

as large as life - в натуральную величину;

as like as two peas - похожи как две капли воды;

Exercise 28.Comment on similes. Pick out the similes from the following sentences.

1. The boy's got a temper, of course, but he's as straight as a die. (G.) 2. The matter was clear as daylight. (G) 3. Worst of all, he had no hope of snaking her resolution; she was as obstinate as a mule, always had been from a child. (Th.) 4. He is as thin as a rail. (Mg.) 5. How elegant he looks! My brother Molly Malony is as like him as two peas. (Th.) 6. Marley was as dead as a door-nail. (D.) 7. «How are you feeling, Tom?» he asked. «Fit as a fiddle.» (Ln.) 8. The fingers that met his own were hard as horn, with split and yellowish nails. (Cr.) 9. «You're as bold as brass in general,» he said. (D.) 10. She had no sooner done this, than off she was again; and there she stood once more, as brisk and busy as a bee. (D.) 11. He was silent as a mute at a funeral, and, he told himself, as dismal. (Cr.) 12. «It was as true,» said Mr. Barkis, «as turnips is.» (D.) 13. Here, then, we lay for an hour or two, aching from head to foot, as weak as water. (Stv.) 14. And waving her hand, white as a lily, and fine as a fairy's, she vanished within the porch.. (Ch.B). 15. Both these Forsytes, wide asunder, as the poles in many respects, possessed in their different ways — to greater degree than the rest of the family — that essential quality of tenacious and prudent insight into «affairs» which is the high-water mark of their great class. (G.) 16. That he loved her, on the other hand, was as clear as day. (Ln.) 17. «1 never dreamed of such a thing,” Mr. Asmunsen said. «And yet it does seem clear as print (Ln.) 18. «As clear as mud you've forgotten me,» he said. (Kp.) 19 «I have been as blind as a bat,» he cried, a ring of vexation in his voice. It’s as plain as the nose on your face. (Dr.)

Exercise 29. Sayings. Memorize the sayings, be ready to use them in situations

An abomination of desolation Мерзость запустения

The phrase an abomination of desolation comes from the Bible. The biblical story has it that when the Romans conquered Palestine, they set up their standard in the Holy of Holies .in the temple of Jerusalem. The Holy of Holies was the sanctuary of the temple, entered only by the high priest. The Roman standard within the walls of the sanctuary was regarded by the people of Jerusalem with horror and disgust, as an abomination. The abominable place was forsaken by the people and fell into ruin and neglect. As the Roman standard caused abomination and brought destruction, it was called an abomination of desolation (the abomination that makes desolate). In modern speech the phrase is, used to denote anything very hateful, regarded with aversion, an abominable thing

The following sentences make up a story; Retell the story in English.

1. Выражение мерзость запустения заимствовано из библии. 2. Согласно библейской легенде, римляне, завоевав Палестину, водрузили над алтарем иерусалимского храма свое знамя. 3. Храм в Иерусалиме считался священным и особенно его алтарь, святая святых, куда доступ разрешался только верховному священнослужителю. 4. После вторжения римских солдат, храм в Иерусалиме был опустошен и заброшен и перестал быть местом священнослужения. 5. В современном языке выражение мерзость запустения употребляется, когда речь идет о чем-либо запущенном или грязном, вызывающем глубокое отвращение.

The Augean stables Авгиевы конюшни

In modern speech the Augean stables are a symbol of worthless lumber a reformer must sweep away before his work can begin. The phrase to cleanse the Augean stables means to bring about a drastic reform in some (usually public) evil. It comes from Greek mythology.

Augeas, a fabled king of Elis, in Greece, was the owner of some 3,000 beautiful oxen; the animals, however, were so wild that their stalls had not been cleaned once in thirty years.

The stables were in a terrible state of filth. The task of cleansing them was assigned to Hercules, the popular hero of ancient Greek legends, who easily effected it by breaking' down a part of the wall, and turning through the stables two rivers that flowed close by, thus washing out thoroughly the horrible mire and filth within. Performing the task was one of the twelve labours of Hercules.

Make up questions in English to which the following Russian sentences would be answers. Do a two-way translation using both the questions and the answers.

1. Авгиевы конюшни – в переносном смысле очень запущенные, грязные помещения, крайний беспорядок в делах, требующий огромных усилий для его устранения. 2. Название заимствовано из греческой мифологии и происходит от имени царя Элиды Авгия. 3. В греческом мифе рассказывается, что у Авгия были огромные конюшни, которые не очищались много лет. 4. Очистить конюшни царя Авгия поручили прославленному герою древнегреческих мифов Гераклу (в римской мифологии Геркулес). 5. Он провел через эти конюшни воды двух расположенных поблизости рек, которые за один день унесли из конюшен всю скопившуюся грязь. 6. Очистка Авгиевых конюшен — это один из двенадцати подвигов Геракла

Attic Salt Аттическая соль

Attica was a district of ancient Greece, with the administrative centre at Athens. It influenced the lives and thoughts of countless people for more than 2,000 years, so great was the learning and the taste of those who lived there in the remote past. The adjective Attic, besides 'pertaining to Attica', has come to denote, metaphorically, 'anything characterized by simplicity, purity and refinement1.

The phrase Attic salt denotes delicate, sharp wit, resembling the refined and elegant style of the Athenian writers. Salt, both in Latin and Greek, was a polysemantic word, one of its meanings being 'wit', or 'sparkling thought', and hence Attic salt means wit as pointed and delicately expressed as that which was charac-teristic of the Athenians.

An Aeolian harp Эолова арфа

An Aeolian harp is a string musical instrument played by the wind. It is made by stretching strings of catgut over a wooden box. Being placed in' a draught and thus exposed to the action of the wind it produces pleasing sounds of plaintive music, if the strings are properly tuned. The name Aeolian harp has been derived from classical mythology. Thus was called the harp belonging to Aeolus, the god of the winds and the king of the islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, north of Sicily (now the Lipari islands). In the caverns of these islands the winds were supposed to be confined.

After us, the deluge После нас хоть потоп

After us, the deluge, the translation of Apres nous, le deluge, means 'I don't care what happens when I am dead and gone'. The saying is generally ascribed to Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV. Some say that she made the remark to her lover when the latter was worried about the future of France after the defeat by Frederick the Great in 1757. According to others, Mme de Pompadour used the phrase to laugh off all the remonstrances of ministers at her extravagance. Some twelve years afterwards Metternich, the Austrian statesman, used the same words, meaning that after his death his state might go to the dogs for all he cared.

The apple of discord Яблоко раздора

The phrase the apple of discord is used to denote a cause of dispute, a moot point. The allusion is to the Greek myth of the golden apple that the goddess of discord threw among the guests at the wedding of Thetis and Peleus, to which she had not been invited. The apple bore the inscription "for the fairest". Hera (Juno), Aphrodite (Venus) and Athena (Minerva) became competitors for it. Being unable to settle the point, they referred the question to Paris, a Trojan prince. Each of the three goddesses offered Paris a precious gift if he would award her the prize. Hera offered him a kingdom; Arhena, great success in battle; Aphrodite said she would give him the most beautiful woman in the world for his wife. Paris chose Aphrodite as the fairest. This inflamed the jealousy and hatred of Hera and Athena to all the Trojan race (to which Paris belonged), and resulted in the Trojan war and the fall of Troy.

As poor as Lazarus Беден как Лазарь

The phrase as poor as Lazarus is derived from the Gospel parable of the rich man and the beggar. Lazarus, a leprous beggar, was so poor and miserable that lying near the door of a rich man's house he dreamed of a few morsels of bread that would fall from the dinner-table. In modern speech the words are used to describe a very poor man, especially a diseased beggar.

Exercise 30. Current American Idioms. Study the idioms.

ALL THUMBS

DEFINITION: Awkward, especially with one's hands; clumsy

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES

• Walter tried to fix the broken table but couldn't. He was all thumbs. (Paraphrase: He had trouble fixing the table because he was awkward with his hands.) When it comes to using a hammer and saw, I'm all thumbs. (Paraphrase: I'm quite clumsy with a hammer and saw.)

FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY: Ask students to give examples of skills in which they are all thumbs.

AT LOGGERHEADS



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