Сделай Сам Свою Работу на 5

Read the given text. Write out the sentences containing idioms and translate them into Russian.


(by I. Murdoch)

At that very moment the telephone rang. My heart sprang within me and fell like a bird striking a window pane. I started to my feet. I had not the slightest doubt that the caller had been Hugo. I looked at the phone as if it were a rattlesnake. I lifted the receiver and said "Hello!" in an assumed voice, hoarse and trembling.

At the other end of the wire Hugo said hesitantly, "I'm so sorry. I wonder if I could possibly speak to Miss. Quentin, if she's there?"

I stood there paralyzed, without an idea of what to say to him. Then I said, "Listen, Hugo, it's Jake Donaghue here. I want to see you as soon as possible about something very important." There was dead silence. Then I said, "Could you come here to Saide's? I'm alone here. Or shall I come where you are?" In the middle of this sentence Hugo replaced the receiver.

Then I was in a complete frenzy. shouted into the phone and hurled it down. I tore my hair and cursed at the top of my voice. I stamped up and down the room scattering the rugs to right and left. I It took me a good ten minutes to calm down and start wondering what it was exactly that I was so upset about. I felt that now I must see Hugo at once, instantly, at any cost, within the hour if possible. Until I had seen Hugo the world would stand still. I was not in the least clear about what I wanted to see Hugo for. It was just essential, that was all, and I would be in anguish. until it was done. I seized the phone book. I knew that Hugo had moved from his former house, and I had taken care not to know anything of his present abode. I turned the pages with trembling fingers. Yes, he was in the book, a Holborn address and a City number. With a stampeding heart I dialed the number. There was no reply. Then I sat quietly wondering what to do next. I decided that I should go first of all straight to the address given in the phone book, in case he should nevertheless be there, and that I should then seek him if need be at the Bounty studio. If Hugo had been looking for Sadie it was unlikely that he was in the studio, since that was where Sadie herself was. On the other hand, the Miss Quentin he had asked for might have been Anna. So there was really no knowing whether or not he mightn't be at the studio. In any case the first thing to do was to go to Holborn to see if he was hiding there and just not answering the phone.

Exercise 6. Read the notes Translate the sentences given as examples, write the idioms into your vocabulary


at any cost at all costs by all means at any rate in any case

far from it not a bit of it by no means not at any price not in the least

at any cost/price == at all- costs, by all means, whatever it may cost, no matter what must be done —во что бы то ни стало, любой ценой

Sinking down through him were the lees of despair which must at all costs be hidden from his mother, (E. Tailor) ... a ringing, determined laugh that expressed more the determination to be cheerful at all costs than any real mirth. (A. Christie)

by all means, in every possible way, at all costs, certainly — обязательно, во что бы то ни стало

Jolyon had all the proper feeling of a Forsyte whose privacy is threatened: if he was to be hung by the law, by all means let it be for a sheep. (J. Galsworthy).

at any rate (1), under any circumstances, at all events, whatever happens—любой ценой, при любых обстоя­тельствах

I have no friend ... but your favour I'll preserve at any rate.

(J. Fletcher)

at any rate (2), at least—по меньшей мере

"You can't express your feelings. In other words you can't act. At any rate," he added kindly, "not on the platform of a railway station." (H. E. Bates)

in any case, whatever happens or may have happened, anyhow, under any circumstances — во всяком случае

I think he would have crossed over one day in any case, but the dog was the last straw. (G. Greene) In any case, she thought, I don't seem my age and I don't believe, thank God, that I look as though I've kept going. (A. Wilson)

far from it, not in the least — отнюдь нет, ничуть

I don't blame him—far from it. (A. Huxley) This business isn't run by the Ivy League, by inher­ited wealth, or the high-type people of the Eastern Seaboard. Far from it. (Ger. Green)

not a bit of, not at all, not in the least—совсем нет, никоим образом, ни в малейшей степени

"Now, what would you say was the future of a body like NISP?" "To get more votes than any other party and make you Prime Minister." "Not a bit of it!" said Lefty triumphantly. (I. Murdoch)

by no means, certainly not — ни под каким видом, никак

And by no means lend him money any more. {Ch. Dickens) I'm by no means sure they're tortoises at all. (/C. Amis) .

not at any price, by no means — никогда, ни за что, ни

при каких обстоятельствах

Her eyes seemed very big, they didn't seem fright­ened, they seemed proud almost, as if she'd decided not to be frightened, not at any price. (J. Fletcher)

not in the least, not at all — ни в малейшей степени, ни­чуть, нисколько

"Are you sure it's not too much bother?" "Not in the least." (A. Christie) I'm not in the least tired.

at the top of one's voice in full cry like a ton of bricks

in a whisper under one's breath

at the top of one's voice, with a loud voice—во весь голос, во все горло

He's the sort of bloke who goes once a year to a symphony concert and talks about it at the top of his voice on the bus next morning. (S. Barstow Somebody called out shrilly at the top of his voice heads were craning round him. (J. Galsworthy}

in full cry, all crying together at the top of their voices — что есть мочи

The cook leaped from the car and bounded down the track with all of us after him in full cry. (Conroy)

like a ton of bricks (Amer. collog.), at the top of one's voice — во всю глотку, изо всей силы, неистово

Every now and then we march from Aldermasten, protesting like a ton of bricks. (P. G. Wodehouse)

under one's breath, quietly or in a whisper — тихо, шепо­том

Then he turned round and walked away and we heard him muttering under his breath, and then the mournful whistling began again. (/, Masters) He sat near her on a polished oak chair. She hummed softly under her breath. (A. Christie)

in a whisper, in a low, soft tone of voice — шепотом

And as though to echo her, Bill's voice came very slowly and in a whisper she could hardly hear. (A. Wilson)

take care/ heed be on one's guard think twice

throw caution to the wind (s)

be off one's guard

take care/heed {colloq.}, give careful attention to, be careful of — быть осторожным, осмотрительным

"You take care," said Nicholas, "or he'll turn up again." (J. Galsworthy) He hoped that Welch would take due heed of his testimony. (K. Amis)

think twice (colloq.), avoid hasty action, think again be­fore acting, hesitate — хорошенько подумать прежде нем сделать ч.-л.

"It isn't very kind to say that a tie I gave you doesn't mean anything," said Barbara pouting. "I shall think twice before I give you another." (W. J. B.) "If I didn't love her I might think twice about marrying her." (A. Sillitoe)

be on one's guard, be prepared against attack or surprise – держать ухо востро, остерегаться,

It would be unbearable ... If you had to explain your reason for doing some trifling action, if you had always to be on your guard against touchiness. (L. P. Hartley) He seemed so anxious to be asked questions, too, that James felt he must be on his guard. (J. Galsworthy)

throw/fling caution to the wind, neglect, take no thought of — отбросить всякую осторожность

Spotting what he was after, he jumped to his feet. He threw caution to the wind and dashed to where it lay, where he had dropped it in yesterday's panic. (/. Purdy)

be off one's guard, be unprepared against attack or sur­prise – быть недостаточно бдительным

Released from strain, the sudden contact with the cold had made her sleepy: the sentinels were off their guard. (P. Hartley) He struck me while I was off my guard.

Exercise 7. Answer the following questions using the idioms in brackets.

1. Did Jake expect the telephone call? (out of the blue). 2. Was Hugo anxious to speak to Jake? (not care a pin). 3. How did Jake feel about it? (beside oneself with). 4. Did he manage to calm down? (regain one's composure). 5. Was Jake determined to see Hugo in no time? (by all means). 6. Was he clear about what he wanted to see Hugo for? (far from it). 7. It wasn't thoughtful of Jake to take care not to know Hugo's new address, was it? (as a matter of fact) 8. What did Jake decide to do first of all? (to begin with). 9. Since there were two sisters Quentin, Sadie and Anna, could it by all means denote that Hugo wanted to see Sadie? (on the contrary).

Exercise 8. Paraphrase the idioms under study.

I. I had always taken care to insulate very carefully that part of my life which concerned Hugo. ( Murdoch) 2. Without thinking about it twice I went up to her and asked whether she minded if I shared the board with her.: (W. Reyburn) 3. Now they were in full cry; all of them standing behind the safety of the porch railing, shrieking abuse at his head. (Ger. Green) 4. Here you are talking at the top of your voice, scandalizing the whole neighbourhood. (Th. Dreiser) 5. Under my breath I said, "Go away, Pyle. Don't come near me." (G. Greene) 6. "Am I troubling you?" "No, not in the least." (A. Huxley) 7. "You're very kind," t said Mr. Quin. "Not at all. It's a pleasure." {A. Christie) 8. Almost it pleased her to think that another woman, favoured as she had been, would have kept the letters at all costs. (L. P. Hartley) .

Exercise 9. Read

Для переводчика ирония - это стилистический прием, по­зволяющий заставить слушающего перевод по меньшей мере усмехнуться, если этого требует или позволяет ситуация.

Реализация приема иронии заключается в создании конт­растного противоречия между контекстом и ФЕ. Так, если вы скажете о человеке, который глуп, как пробка, что он „семи пя­дей во лбу'', вы получите эффект иронии. Если вы процитируе­те слова какого-то мазурика о том, что он якобы „чист, как ангел" ("...that he is as innocent as a lamb") и к тому же „и мухи не обидит" ("...that he wouldn't hurt a fly"), ирония должна не­минуемо возникнуть. Как, наверное, сказал бы философ, преу­величение - повивальная бабка иронии.

Однако, если рассмотреть более глубоко и объективно факторы, составляющие механизм возникновения эффекта иронии, нельзя не обнаружить, что этот механизм заключается в создании переводчиком контраста путем использования про­тивоположных оценок - отрицательной оценки (-) в контексте („очень глуп") в сочетании с положительной оценкой (+) во фразеологизме („семи пядей во лбу"). Если в этих условиях контрастное преувеличение достигнуто, тогда и возникшая ирония подтвердится улыбкой рецептора, т.е. реакцией на пе­ревод - обратной связью.

Если же отрицательная оценка в контексте не выражена ярко, контраста оценок может не быть, и ирония не получится. Тут и подумаешь об „искусстве перевода" - о том, что все зави­сит от переводчика..

О человеке можно также сказать „Он не лыком шит" ("Не has been around the block," где "block" буквально означает „го­родской квартал", или "Не is nobody's fool"). И, разумеется, не надо путать „Он не лыком шит" с „Он лыка не вяжет" (в России „Он лыка не вяжет" понимают без словаря, так что данное предупреждение может относиться исключительно к ино­странцам).

Выражение „скрести по сусекам" попало к нам из сказки о Колобке, а в сказку - от вековой бедности русского крестьян­ства. Недаром фразеологический фонд русского языка изоби­лует фразеологизмами, передающими иронию. В нем есть ФЕ, которые могут передавать иронию и вне зависимости от кон­текста, например пословица, “ До бога высоко, до царя далеко".

В пословице - безысходность, горькая ирония, сарказм. Но не будем грустить.

Exercise 9.2. Переведите нижеследующие газетные отрывки, исполь­зуя английские ФЕ из Списка „А "

(1) Ну, да и мы не лыком шиты. 8"а Они нас не смогут обдурить.

(2) Существующим мелким банкам приходилось под
страхом ликвидации скрести по сусекам.™

(3) Подсудимого оправдали. А почему? Изучил, дескать,
прокурор все пункты обвинительного заключения и в конце
концов пришел к выводу, что один из ведущих путчистов чист
как ангел}1


(6) взять (брать) себя в (a) to pull oneself together
    (b) to take oneself in hand
(7) держать себя в руках (a) to hold oneself in hand
    (b) to keep a (tight) hold on
(8) кто-л. не лыком шит (a) be nobody's fool (тж.: We
    are nobody's fools.)
    (b) напр. : I wasn't born yester-
    day. I've been around (или
  around the block).
(9) навести (наводить) тень (a) to fog things up
  на плетень (b) to paint smth in wrong co-
    (c) to throw dust in one's eyes



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