Перепишите и письменно переведите тексты.
Письменно выполните задания
Some of the prison population consists of unconvinced prisoners held in custody and awaiting trial. These prisoners are presumed to be innocent and are treated accordingly. They are allowed all reasonable facilities to seek release on bail, prepare for trail, and maintain contacts with relatives and friends. They also have the right to wear their own clothes and can write and receive unlimited number of letters.
Women are usually kept in smaller prisons with special programmes and recreational opportunities with emphasis on housekeeping, sewing and typing skills. Women prisoners do not wear prison uniform and there is a clothing allowance to help pay for clothes while in prison. Some prisons provide mother and baby units where babies remain with their mothers.
Since the capital punishment has been abolished in Britain, the severest penalty for the most serious crimes such as murder is life imprisonment. Those serving life sentences for the murder of police and prison officers, terrorist murders, murder by firearm in the cause of robbery and the sexual or sadist murder of children are normally detained for at least twenty years. Life sentences for offences other than murder can be reduced up to nine years.
Перепишите предложения. Напишите, верны ли данные утверждения. Если нет – дайте правильный ответ.
1. Unconvicted prisoners must wear a prison uniform.
2. Unconvicted prisoners are allowed to write and receive letters without any limit.
3. Some institutions for women have mother and baby units.
4. Women prisoners must wear a prison uniform.
5. Capital punishment is not applied in Great Britain.
6. Life sentence lasts for at least fifty years.
Development of the Prison System
A prison is an institution for the confinement of persons convicted of serious crimes or felonies. In the 19th and 20th centuries, imprisonment replaced corporal punishment, execution and banishment as the main means of punishing serious offenders. Historically exile, execution and corporal punishment were the most common penalties for criminal acts. Until the late 18th century, prisons were used mostly for the confinement of debtorswho could not pay, of offenders awaiting trial, and of those convicted persons waiting for their sentences—death or exile—to be put into effect.
With the decline of capital punishment, the prison began to be used also as a place of punishment. The concept of the penitentiary was advocated in England during late 18th century by Jeremy Bentham. At the same time in the United States penitentiaries were created first in Pennsylvania and then in New York. Antisanitary conditions and overcrowding produced a wide agitation for changes in prisons. Solitary confinement of criminals became an ideal among reformers of the 18th century. A philosophy of prison management known as the “silent system” was developed. The prisoners worked together in silence in the daytime and at night were confined in solitary cells.
There were the steps made to fit the severity of punishment to the severity of crime.
Перепишите предложения. Письменно ответьте на вопросы
1. What is a prison?
2. What were the means of punishing offenders before the 19th century?
3. How were prisons used until the late 18th century?
4. When did the prison begin to be used as a place of punishment?
5. Why did reformers fight for solitary confinement of criminals?
6. What is the “silent system”?
Prisons and Jails
Prisons differ from jails. Jails are facilities operated by local authorities and used to confine adult criminal offenders who have short-term sentences (in the United States, sentences of less than one year). Jails are used to house offenders, awaiting trial, witnesses in protective custody, probation and parole violators, and juveniles awaiting transfer to juvenile facilities.
Prisons have a distinctive inmate culture and jargon, whereas most jail populations constantly change. So little opportunity exists for jail inmates to develop a culture. Because prisons house long-term offenders, they usually offer vocational and educational programs for inmate’s rehabilitation. Most jails do not have such programs. Jails also lack other inmate facilities that exist in prisons, such as exercise facilities, small stores, and doctors, counselors, and other professionals.
The majority of jails in the United States are small, consisting of a single building with several cell blocks (horizontal groupings of cells). Prison facilities, by contrast, usually spread out over several acres, with high walls surrounding the perimeter. Prisons are also divided into a system of custody levels, where more dangerous inmates are separated from less dangerous ones. Armed guards occupy strategic positions in towers to deter prisoners from escape attempts. Prisons and most jails in the United States segregate male and female inmates and juveniles. However, some jails — known as lock-ups — consist of one or two large cells into which all arrested individuals are placed.
Перепишите предложения и напишите, верны ли следующие утверждения. Если нет – дайте правильный ответ.
1. There are prisons and jails in the USA.
2. Both prisons and jails offer educational and vocational programmes.
3. Young offenders are confined in jails.
4. Jails usually consist of one building.
1. Английский для юристов. Базовый курс: учеб.пособие / Ю.Л.Гуманова –М.: Кно Рус, 2008.
2. Английский для юристов: учеб.пособие /Э.А. Немировская –М.: «Омега-Л», 2009.
3. Голицинский Ю.Б. Грамматика: сборник упражнений. СПб.: Каро, 2006.
4. Куценко Л.И., Тимофеева Г.И. Английский язык (учебное пособие для юридических учебных заведений»). М. «Щит», 2001.
5. Зеликман А.Я. Английский для юристов.- Ростов н/Д.: Феникс, 2007.
6. Морохова О.А., Бунина В.В. Английский язык. Учебно-методическое пособие. Владимир. ВЮИ Минюста России, 2003.
7. Немировская Э.А. Английский язык для юристов: учебное пособие. М.: Омега-Л, 2009.
8. Подстрахова А.В., Шубникова Е. Английский язык. Учебно-методическое пособие по развитию навыков чтения юридической литературы. Владимир. ВЮИ Минюста России, 2001.
Перечень вопросов к экзамену для слушателей по направлению подготовки по направлению подготовки 030500.62 -
«Юриспруденция» и 031001.65 -
Перечень вопросов к экзамену
Я и моя семья
1. What is your name?
2. How old are you?
3. When and where were you born?
4. What are you?
5. Why did you choose the profession of a lawyer?
6. What is your hobby?
7. Have you a family?
8. Are you married?
9. What does your family consist of?
10. What do your parents do?
11. Have you any sisters or brothers?
12. What are the relations in your family?
Высшее образование в УИС
13. Where do you study?
14. What specialists does our institute train?
15. Who is the chief of the institute?
16. What facilities does our institute have?
17. What subjects do you study?
18. What will you get after graduating from the institute?
19. What are your favorite subjects?
20. What legal professions in England can you name?
21. What is the barrister?
22. What is the solicitor?
23. Who defends the client in the lowest courts and who defends the client in the highest courts?
24. Is the profession of a lawyer useful in our time?
25. What specialists act in trial procedure?
26. What is the place of the barrister’s work?
27. What is law?
28. What is the main aim of law?
Великобритания и США
29. What are the full names of the UK (the USA)?
30. Where is the UK (the USA) situated?
31. What are the largest mountains of Great Britain (the USA)?
32. What are the longest rivers of Great Britain (the USA)?
33. What are the area and the population of the UK (the USA)?
34. What does the UK (the USA) consist of?
35. What are the capitals of the UK (the USA)
36. What are the capitals of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland?
37. What are the four parts of London?
38. What is the official language in the UK (the USA)?
39. Who is the head of state in the UK (the USA)?
40. What are the largest cities in the UK (the USA)?
41. What are three branches of power exist in any government?
42. By whom or what is the legislative branch in the government of the UK and the USA represented?
43. By whom or what is the executive branch in the government of the UK and the USA represented?
44. By whom or what is the judicial branch in the government of the UK and the USA represented?
45. What are the functions of the USA President?
46. Who or what is the real power of Great Britain?
47. Why can the English constitution be called unusual?
48. What documents does the English constitution include?
49. What main American and British political parties can you name?
Преступление и наказание
50. What does Criminal Law define?
51. What is crime?
52. What types of crime do you know?
53. What is felony?
54. What felonies can you name?
55. What is misdemeanor?
56. What misdemeanors can you name?
57. What types of punishments do you know?
58. What is criminal punishment?