NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS
TEXT. ANNE MEETS HER GLASS
The children fixed their eyes upon Anne. Anne gazed back, feeling helpless.
"Now, children," began Miss Enderby firmly, "you are very, very lucky this term to have Miss Lacey for your new teacher."
Anne gave a watery smile. The Children's faces were unmoved.
"Miss Lacey," repeated Miss Enderby with emphasis. "Can you say that?"
"Miss Lacey," chorused the class obediently.
"Perhaps you could say 'Good morning' to your new teacher?" suggested Miss Enderby in an imperative tone.
"Good morning. Miss Lacey," came the polite chorus.
"Good morning, children," responded Anne in a voice which bore no resemblance to her own.
Miss Enderby motioned to the children to take their seats. "I should give out paper and coloured pencils," said Miss Enderby, "as soon as you've called the register. Keep them busy while you're finding your way about the cupboards and so on."
She gave a swift look round the class. "I expect you to help Miss Lacey in every way," said the headmistress. "D'you hear me, Arnold?"
The little boy addressed, who had been crossing and uncrossing his eyes in an ugly manner for the enjoyment of his neighbours, looked suitably crest-fallen.
"If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy," murmured Miss Enderby. "Broken home — brother in Borstal — and some rather dreadful habits!"
Anne looked with fresh interest at Arnold and thought he looked quite different from what Miss Enderby said about him. Far too innocent and apple-cheeked to have such a record. But even as she looked, she saw his pink face express his scorn of Miss Enderby who was giving her final messages to the new teacher.
"Break at ten forty-five, dear," said the headmistress. "Come straight to the staff room. I will wait there till you join us. I will introduce you to those you didn't meet on your first visit How do you like the idea of having a cup of tea then? We need rest after all. If there's anything that puzzles you, I shall be in my room. You can depend on me. Just send a message by one of the children."
She made her way to the door and waited before it, eyebrows raised as she turned her gaze upon the children. They gazed back in some bewilderment
"Is no one going to remember his manners?" asked Miss Enderby.
With a nervous start Anne hastened forward to the door, but was waved back by a movement of her headmistress's hand. A dozen or more children made a rush to open the door. A freckled girl with two skinny red plaits was the first to drag open the door. She was rewarded by a smile.
"Thank you, dear, thank you," said Miss Enderby and sailed majestically into the corridor. There came a faint sigh of relief as the door closed behind her, and the forty-six tongues which had so far kept unnaturally silent began to wag cheerfully. Anne watched this change with some dismay. She remembered with sudden relief some advice given her at college in just such a situation.
"Stand quite still, be quite calm, and gradually the children will become conscious that you are waiting. Never, never attempt to shout them down."
So Anne stood her ground waiting for the chattering to subside. But the noise grew in volume as conversations became more animated. One or two children ran across the room to see their distant friends. Two little boys attacked each other. A child with birthday cards was displaying their beauties to an admiring crowd round her desk. Arnold had removed his blue pullover and was attempting to pull his shirt over his head, in order to show his friends a scar on his shoulderblade.
Amidst growing chaos Anne remained silent. She looked at the clock which jerked from one minute to the next and decided to let it leap once more before she abandoned hope.
One crumb of comfort, if comfort it could be called, remained with her. This was an outburst of natural high spirits. Her presence, she noted, meant nothing at all to them.
A chair fell over, someone yelped with pain, there was a burst of laughter, and Anne saw the clock jump to another minute. Anne advanced into action.
"To your desks!" she roared, "And quickly!"
With a pleasurable shock she saw her words obeyed. Within a minute order had returned. Refreshed by the break the children turned attentive eyes upon her.
Anne's self-esteem crept back.
(From "Fresh from the Country" by Miss Reed)
1. to lookυ i/t 1. смотреть, глядеть, е.g. I looked (up, down) at the opposite house, but saw no lights in its windows.
Syn. to stare, to gaze
to lookmeans "to use one's eyes, to try to see", е.g. He looked at me, but didn't recognize me.
to staremeans "to look steadily, with wide-open eyes, often with curiosity or surprise, or vacantly (бессмысленно, рассеянно)". We may stare at a person or thing, into the water, distance, fire or anything that has depth (пристально смотреть, глазеть, таращить/пялить глаза), е.g. Не stared at me as if I had asked him to do something impossible. He stared at the fire, deep in thought.
to gazemeans "to look at smb. or smth. (or into smb.'s eyes) usu. long and steadily with interest, love, desire, in wonder, admiration, etc.", е.g. He's very fond of this picture, he can gaze at it for hours. The lovers stood with their hands clasped, gazing into each other's eyes.
to look about осматриваться, оглядываться по сторонам, е.g. I looked about, but saw no people anywhere.
to look (a thing) throughпросматривать что-л., е.g. Look through those documents, please.
to look afterзаботиться, ухаживать за кем-n., чём-n., е.g. I'll look after the child. Don't forget to look after the flowers when I'm away.
to look forискать кого-л., что-л., е.g. I've been looking for you since the very morning.
to look forward to (smth. or doing smth.)предвкушать что-л., с удовольствием ожидать чего-л., е.g. John looked forward to seeing Mario and his wife. Students always look forward to their holidays.
Look here!Послушай! е.g. Look here, wouldn't it be better to stay indoors in such nasty weather?
2. казаться, выглядеть (followed by an adjective, noun or like), е.g. He looks sad. The child looks ill (well). She looks like a real teacher. It looks like rain.
Note: казаться has twoEnglish equivalents — to lookand to seem; to lookmeans выглядеть, е.g. He looks young for his age. She looks beautiful "n this dress. She looks a child.; to seemmeans производить впечатление (it expresses various degrees of doubt), e.g. She seems (to be) clever. This village seems (to be) quite small now. He seems (to be) well educated.
lookn 1. взгляд, е.g. There was something strange in his look.
Syn. stare, gaze,е.g. Lanny returned the man's stare, but didn't utter a word. The girl blushed when she noticed the stranger's fixed gaze.
to have a look atвзглянуть, е.g. Have a look at this photo, do you recognize the man?
Note: The English for взгляд = точка зрения is idea, opinion, (point of) view, е.g. I don't know his point of view оn (views on, idea(s) of, opinion of) this subject.
2. выражение, е.g. A took of pleasure came to her face. There was an angry look in her eyes,
2. to differυi i. различаться, отличаться (fromsmb. or smth. in smth.), е.g. The two brothers differ in their tastes. His plan differs from all the others.; 2. не соглашаться, расходиться во взглядах (from/with smb. in smth.), е.g. I differ from (with) you in this matter.
Ant. agree (with smb.; to smth.), е.g. Let's agree to differ (пусть каждый останется при своем мнении).
differentadj 1. непохожий, не такой, отличный от (from), е.g. Не is quite different from what I thought him to be. I want a different kind of book this time (but I prefer books of a different kind). Our views on life are different.
Ant. alike, е.g. Our tastes are alike.
Note: Don't confuse the words different and another which may be translated by the same Russian word другой; е.g. I want another (другой = еще один) piece of cake. I want a different (другой = другого copra, вида и т. д.) piece of cake. Let's try another (еще один) variant Let's by a different (иного рода) variant.
2. разный, различный, е.g. A department store sells many different things. Every day our students get different written assignments.
difference n разница, различие, е.g. The difference between our views is not very great. I don't find much difference in the styles of these writers.
to make some (no, not much) difference (to smb.), е.g. It won't make much difference whether we do it today or tomorrow. You may stay or leave, it makes no difference to me.
3. rest υ i/t 1. отдыхать, лежать, спать; давать отдых, е.g. Не rested for an hour before going on with his work. She likes to rest after dinner. They stopped to rest their horses.
2. опираться, покоиться, держаться на чём-n., е.g. The roof rests on eight columns. There is always a cloud resting on the top of this mountain.
3. оставаться (лежать); класть, прислонять, е.g. Her fingers touched his forehead and rested there. She sat with her elbows resting on the table.
Note: The Russian word оставаться has several English equivalents, е.g. Пусть все остается как есть. Let the matter rest. Я не хочу здесь оставаться. I don't want to stay here. У нас осталось только 5 рублей. Only 5 roubles are left Все остается без изменений Everything remains without any changes.
rest n покой, отдых, сон, е.g. Rest is necessary after work. I had a good night's rest. We had several rests on our way up the mountains. But: Он отдыхал на юге. Не spent his holiday in the South.
rest n (always with def. article) остаток, остальное, остальная часть чего-л.
the rest of (the time, the books, etc.), е.g. Have you written all the exercises? — No, only half of them. The rest (of the exercises) may be done orally. Only five of us were present at the lesson, the rest (of the group) went to the meeting. I'll take an apple and you may take the rest.
4. comfortableadj 1. удобный; комфортабельный; уютный, е.g. a comfortable chair, room, bed, house; comfortable shoes, etc.; 2. predic разг. довольный, спокойный, чувствующий себя удобно, е.g. I'm sure you'll be very comfortable there.
to make oneself comfortable, е.g. Mr. Murdoch made himself comfortable in a chair and ordered a strong black coffee.
comfort n 1. утешение, поддержка, е.g. The news brought comfort to all of us. He was a great comfort to his parents.; 2. успокоение, покой, отдых, е.g. to be fond of comfort, to live in comfort
comfort υt утешать, успокаивать
comforting adj утешительный, успокоительный, е.g. comforting words.
Note: convenient adj means suitable, handy, serving to avoid trouble or difficulty; е.g. convenient time, method, tool, place, etc. Will this bus be convenient to/for you? Let's arrange a convenient time and place for the conference.
convenience n 1. удобство (the quality of being convenient or suitable), е.g. at your earliest convenience; for convenience; 2. (pl.) удобства (device, arrangement, etc. that is useful or convenient, е.g. central heating, hot water supply), е.g. The house has all modern conveniences. Ant. inconvenience
5. to run (ran, run)υi/t 1. бежать, бегать, е.g. 1 ran all the way for fear of being late. As soon as we fired, the enemy ran.
2. ходить, плыть, курсировать (о трамваях, автобусах и пр.), е.g. Trams run on rails. Motor cars ran along ordinary roads. The buses run every five minutes.
3. течь, литься, е.g. Torrents of water ran down the streets. Rivers run into the sea. Don't you hear the water running in the kitchen? If you have a bad cold, your nose runs.
4. тянуться, е.g. For several miles the road ran across a plain.
Note:For the Russian тянуться = простираться the verb stretchis used, е.g. The forest stretched to the South for many miles.
5. гласить, рассказывать, говорить(ся), е.g. So the story runs. The story runs ....
to run into smb.случайно встретиться с кем-n.; to run into smth. натолкнуться на что-л., е.g. Our car ran into the bus. I ran into a friend of mine on my way-home.; to run across smb./smth.случайно встретить (натолкнуться на что-л.), е.g. The other day I ran across a very interesting article in the newspaper.: to run over smb.переехать, задавить кого-л., also: to be run over (by a car), е.g. But for the skill of the driver the man would have been run over by the bus.
6. join υt/i 1. соединять(ся), объединяться), е.g. I couldn't join (together) the two halves of the vase, because a small piece was missing. Where do the two streams join (each other)?
N о t e: to joinusu. means "to put two things together", е.g. The island was joined to the mainland with a bridge.; to uniteusu. means "to join together (by a common aim or bond) several objects so as to form one new unit", е.g. We united all our forces to drive the enemy out of our country. Workers of the world, unite! The United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed in 1945 in San Francisco.
2. присоединяться (к), е.g. Will you join me in my walk? We'll join you in a few minutes.
3. входить в компанию, вступать в члены, е.g. If I were you I should join this club. He was twenty-two when he joined the array.
7. dependυi 1. зависеть от (on/upon smb. for smth.), е.g. We depend on the newspapers for information about world events. He depends on his sister for a living. Children usually depend on their parents (находятся на иждивении родителей).; 2. полагаться, рассчитывать на кого-л., что-л., е.g. You can depend upon the man. I depend on you to do it. Can I depend on this time-table or is it an old one?
It (all) dependsкак сказать; в зависимости от обстоятельств, е.g. Will you finish your work on time? — It depends.
NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS
1. Synonymsare words expressing the same notion, but differing by certain additional characteristics. E.g. to look, to stare and to gaze express the same notion of turning one's eyes on something or somebody, but stare and gaze differ by their emotional colourings (see item 1 of Vocabulary Notes) whereas look describes the notion generally, without any additional characteristics. Such a general word in the group of synonyms is called the synonymic dominant.
To glance is another synonym of this group which differs from the rest of them by duration: it means looking at something briefly, passingly, a moment only.
2. Antonymsare words with contrasted meanings. E. g. different — alike; convenient — inconvenient; love — hate; up — down.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)
chorus n, υ differ υ join υ
comfort n, υ difference n look n, υ
comfortable adj different adj rest n, υ
convenience n gaze n, υ run υ
convenient adj headmistress n stare n, υ
depend υ unite υ
to fix one's eyes on/upon smb. to keep an eye on smb.
to feel helpless to give (send) a message
to give a smile (a nod, a look, etc.) to turn one's eyes (gaze)
to bear (to have) a strong upon smb./smth.
resemblance to to run across
to motion to smb. to run into
to give out (pencils, leaflets, readers, to run over
workcards, sets of material, etc.) to shout smb. down
to call the register (the roll) to abandon hope
TEXT A. WHAT'S YOUR LINE?
School! Lessons, games, clubs, homework. A bell rings. You go to a classroom. A bell rings. You have lunch. A bell rings. You go home.
But one day you go to school for the last time. What to do after that? You realize that the time to choose one job out of the hundreds has come. It's going to be a hard choice and nobody can make it for you.
Before you can choose, you ask yourself quite a lot of questions. What do you know you are good at? What do you enjoy doing? Perhaps you enjoy working with your hands. Or you may prefer using your head — your brains. Are you interested in machines? Or do you like meeting people? It's difficult to know all the answers to these questions until you have left school and actually begun work.
Many young people consider teaching as a career. It's not surprising: after your parents your teacher may be the most important person in your life. With all the teachers you meet, you think there isn't anything you don't know about the work. That's where you are wrong, since only those who are in it can appreciate it. Have you ever asked yourself why most teachers are so devoted to their work and privately think, though they may not like to admit it openly, that they serve humanity doing the most vital job of all? Those of us who spend our days in schools know how rewarding the job is. At the same time it is not easy and a real challenge to your character, abilities and talent, as teaching is a constant stream of decisions.
Children in your classroom aren't just boys and girls. Every one is a unique individual who has never been before and will never again exist. If you like people, you will love teaching. To be a good teacher you must be genuinely interested in what you are doing.
The most important things in the world are awareness and learning — wanting to know every day of your life more and more and more. Because every time you learn something new you become something new. An ignorant teacher teaches ignorance, a fearful teacher teaches fear, a bored teacher teaches boredom. But a good teacher catalyzes in his pupils the burning desire to know and love for the truth and beauty.
John Steinbeck, writing about his school days said, "I've come to believe that a great teacher is a great artist and you know how few great artists there are in the world. Teaching might even be the greatest of the arts since its medium is the human mind and the human spirit." What an incredible responsibility to be the guardians of the human spirit and the human mind! I think, that is the reason why humanity has the deepest respect for teachers.
I would never stop teaching and I'm sure that you, having chosen it for your career, feel the same way. If you don't feel that way then, please, for all our sakes, get out! The human mind and the human spirit are too wondrous to destroy. But if you are prepared to accept the responsibility, I wish you all the luck in the world.