Сделай Сам Свою Работу на 5
 

Make up questions in English to which the following Russian sentences would be answers. Do a two-way translation using both the statements and the questions.

 

1. В древности законом мидян и персов называли свод законов, принятый персидским царем Дарием для укрепления своей империи.

2. Этот свод законов не подлежал никаким, даже частичным изменениям.

3. Метафора “закон мидян и персов” употребляется, когда речь идет о чем-то, что нельзя изменить [3].

 

 
 

DRACONIAN LAWS (DRACONIC CODE) –

ДРАКОНОВЫ ЗАКОНЫ (ДРАКОНОВСКИЕ МЕРЫ)

Draconian laws are extremely harsh and cruel laws. They are called after Draco, an Athenian law-giver of the 7th century B. C.

Draco devised a code of laws, which were so severe that, as a Greek orator said, they were written in human blood. Every violation of a law was made a capital offense in this code. Idleness, as well as murder, was punished with death, and when Draco was asked to give his reason for this, he replied that even the smallest crimes deserved death, and there could be no higher punishment for the greater ones.

 

Pronunciation and stress:

Draco [´dreikǝu], Draconian [drei´kǝunjǝn], Athenian [ǝ´θi:njǝn], dragon [´drægǝn].

 


19. Do the following two-way translation.

 

Скажите, что такое Драконовы законы? Они имеют какое-нибудь отношение к сказочному чудовищу?

 

Oh, no. The Draconian laws are called after Draco. The mythical dragon has nothing to do with them, as far as I know.

 

Видимо, Дракон был законодателем. И давно он жил?

 

He lived in the 7th century B. C.

 

Ну, конечно, опять древняя история, мое уязвимое место. Наверное, Ассирия или Вавилония?

 

No, Draco was an Athenian law-giver. He lived in Athens, one of the foremost cities of Greece.

 

И чем же особенным отличались его законы? Почему он так прославился?

 

It was notoriety that he earned, not fame. His laws were extremely harsh and cruel. He made every crime a capital offense. The laws set terrible penalties even for minor offenses and the smallest crimes [3].

 

RENDER THE TEXT IN ENGLISH

 

ТРАГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОИСШЕСТВИЯ В АВСТРАЛИЙСКОМ ЛЕСУ

 

Двум молодым англичанкам, автостопом путешествовавшим [hitch-hiking] по Австралии, жизнь казалась беззаботным приключением. И вдруг они исчезли без следа. Обычное поначалу расследование вывело полицию на целый ряд страшных находок, и вскоре команда агентов полиции уже работала по 24 часа в сутки, пытаясь выследить жестокого убийцу.

Это оказалось одним из самых крупных полицейских расследований в истории Австралии – леденящей душу [chilling hearts with terror] историей ужасных преступлений и мастерски выполненной сыскной работы.



…Слушание по делу о заключении под стражу [taking into custody] Ивана Милата открылось в суде Кэмпбэллтауна 24 октября 1994 года. Родители семи жертв выступили со свидетельскими показаниями [giving evidence].

Милат, чисто выбритый, аккуратный, в костюме, сверлил ледяным взглядом каждого из выступавших. Дело было решено передать в Верховный суд. Слушание дела, продолжавшееся 18 недель, началось в суде Святого Джеймса [St. James] города Сиднея 25 марта 1996 года и оказалось одним из самых долгих в истории Австралии по обвинению в убийстве.

27 июля 1996 года после двух с половиной дней заседаний, присяжные вынесли приговор: Иван Милат виновен в совершении семи убийств и в попытке похищения Пола Онионса. Судья Дэвид Хант приговорил Милата к пожизненному заключению [life sentence].

Чуть дрогнувшим голосом судья напомнил суду: “Эти семеро только начинали жить, у них все еще было впереди. Независимо от причины смерти в каждом отдельном случае, ясно одно: всем им пришлось испытать нечеловеческие страдания”.

Отказавшись признать свою вину и не раскаявшись в содеянном, Иван Милат подал апелляцию [appealed against the court's decision]. 26 февраля 1998 года она была отклонена [was rejected].

Пол Онионс отказался от положенного ему вознаграждения [reward] в полмиллиона долларов за участие в раскрытие преступления и попросил, чтобы эти деньги передали семьям погибших и Группе помощи жертвам покушений штата Новый Южный Уэльс. “Награда мне – моя жизнь,” – говорит он.

В память о своей дочери Каролины супруги Иэн и Жаклин Кларк вывели новый сорт розы, персикового цвета, которую назвали “Каролина Кларк”. Летом 1998 года эта роза впервые зацвела [began to blossom] в их саду неподалеку от последнего пристанища [refuge] Каролины – на кладбище [cemetery] церкви Св. Девы Марии.

Глубоко в чаще леса Белангло, рядом с камнем, у которого нашли тело Джоанны Уолтерс, установлен памятник с эпитафией [epitaph]:

“Прими ее, Господь, в свои объятия

И ласкою своей не обдели

За выпавшие ей страдания

И все несправедливости Земли” [21].

Unit 3 Particular Offenses (Part 2)

 

 

 

Reading

Read and translate the following international words.

 

Voluntary, constitute, influence, intoxication, limit, substance, valid, prior, identify, second, Enoch, corrupt, service, authority, complete, provision, establish, conspiracy, object, formal, formation, intent, party.

Read the text and translate it. While reading the text try and find answers to these questions.

 

1. What constitutes so called "hit-and-run" offenses for drivers?

2. When is the crime of bigamy complete?

3. Is breaking an element of burglary under all statutory provisions?

4. What is essential to the crime of conspiracy?

 

PARTICULAR OFFENSES

 
 

(Part 2)

 
 

Automobile Related Offenses—Vehicular homicide is the taking of a life through the reckless or negligent operation of a motor vehicle. Depending upon the circumstances and the language of the particular statute, such an act may also constitute voluntary manslaughter or even murder. Driving while under the influence of a controlled substance or alcohol can itself be an offense if the degree of intoxication exceeds statutory limits; injury to person or property while driving under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance can be prosecuted as a separate offense. So-called "hit-and-run" statutes make it an offense for drivers who, being involved in a motor vehicle incident, know that property damage or personal injury to another has occurred, and fail to stop and identify themselves.

 
 

Bigamy—Bigamy is defined as the act of marrying while the spouse of a former marriage is still alive and the former marriage is still in effect. An essential element of the crime of bigamy is an existing marriage that is valid, or at least merely voidable. A prior void marriage cannot be the foundation of a prosecution for bigamy. In jurisdictions recognizing common law marriages, a subsequent marriage of that kind may constitute bigamy. The crime of bigamy is complete when the second marriage is performed or contracted, and no cohabitation following it is generally necessary to fix the guilt of the defendant, although such cohabitation is made a separate crime in some jurisdictions. Some states have laws (the so-called "Enoch Arden" statutes) by which a second marriage is not bigamous where it is contracted after the first spouse has been absent for the prescribed statutory period, and there are no circumstances which would indicate that the spouse is still living.

 
 

Adultery – Adultery is defined as sexual intercourse by a married person with a person to whom the latter is not married. It is essential to the commis­sion of the offense of adultery that at least one of the persons alleged to have committed the act should have been married to a third person at the time of the commission of the act. If both are married, both may be guilty. Under some statutes, an unmarried person, whether male or female, who has sexual intercourse with a married person of the opposite sex is guilty of adultery, equally with the married person.


 

       
   
 

Bribery ­­–The act of bribery contemplates the voluntary giving or receiv­ing of anything of value in corrupt payment for an act or omission by a public official or private individual. The thing of value can be money, property, services or the improper use of influence or abuse of authority.

 
 

Burglary—Breaking and entering into a building with the intention of committing a crime. By virtue of statutes in most jurisdictions, a criminal intent to steal or to commit some crime at the time of breaking and entering is an essential element of the crime of burglary, although consummation or execution of the intent is not necessary to complete the crime. Although the common law crime covered only a dwelling, present statutes often embrace any other building, house, or even a motor vehicle.

Although breaking is not an element of burglary under some statutory provisions, where breaking must be shown to establish the offense there must be a breaking, moving or putting aside of something material constituting a part of the dwelling house and relied on as security against intrusion. Any degree of force to effect an entrance through any usual place of ingress, whether open, partly open, or closed, constitutes a sufficient breaking. In many jurisdictions burglary can take place in daytime as well as nighttime, although the common law only contemplated nighttime. Statutes in many states make the possession of burglar's tools a separate and distinct criminal offense.

Compounding Crimes –The making of an agreement by one directly injured by the commission of a crime not to inform against or prosecute the offender in return for a reward, bribe or reparation for the injury.

Conspiracy –An agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime accompanied by an overt act in furtherance of the agreement. A conspiracy is an offense distinct from the crime that is the object of the conspiracy. The guilt or innocence of the conspirators does not depend upon the success or failure of their enterprise.

An agreement, to amount to a conspiracy, need not be formal or express, but may be inferred from the circumstances. A criminal intent is essential to the crime of conspiracy, and this intent must exist in the minds of at least two of the parties to the conspiracy. One who joins a conspiracy after its formation is equally culpable with the original members and is responsible for all that has previously been done pursuant to the conspiracy [1].

 
 

Vocabulary notes

 

homicide убийство, лишение жизни
vehicle транспортное средство
controlled substances вещества, находящиеся не в свободном, а в ограниченном пользовании, например, барбитураты и другие наркосодержащие препараты
negligent небрежный, халатный
hit-and-run дорожно-транспортное происшествие, при котором водитель, совершивший наезд (hit) на пешехода, тут же скрывается, уезжает (run) с места происшествия, не оказав помощи пострадавшему и не назвав себя
voidable оспоримый
cohabitation сожительство, совместное проживание (как правило, внебрачное)
bigamy двубрачие (двоеженство или двоемужество), бигамие
defendant ответчик
spouse супруг (муж), супруга (жена)
adultery супружеская измена, прелюбодеяние, адюльтер (трактуются по-разному статутным правом и общим правом)
allege заявлять, утверждать; обвинять
intercourse связь, отношения
burglary берглэри (амер. противоправное проникновение в помещение с умыслом совершения фелонии или кражи; англ. проникновение в ночное время с преодолением физического препятствия в чужое жилище с умыслом совершения фелонии)
burglar виновный в совершении берглэри; преступник, специализирующийся на совершении берглэри (сравни рус. взломщик)
consummation завершение, окончание, консуммация
provision положение, статья (закона)
intrusion вторжение, посягательство
tool инструмент
conspiracy преступный сговор
furtherance способствование осуществлению
culpable виновный
pursuant (to) в соответствии с чем-либо, согласно чему-либо

 

 

Vocabulary work

 

3. Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right:

 

1) vehicle a) unfair influence by money, favors or gifts
2) manslaughter b) the state of being married to two people at the same time – illegal in many countries
3) alcohol c) something in which people or goods can be carried along roads
4) hit-and-run d) taking life of a human being – illegally but not intentionally
5) bigamy e) the colorless liquid present in wine, beer
6) spouse f) sexual relations between a married person and someone outside the marriage
7) money g) purpose
8) alive h) public; not secret
9) subsequent i) paper notes or coins given and taken in buying and selling
10) adultery j) husband or wife
11) bribe k) having life; not dead
12) intent l) have; own
13) succeed m) guiltless; not guilty
14) innocent n) gain a purpose or reach an aim
15) fail o) coming after something else, sometimes as a result of it
16) dwelling p) be unsuccessful
17) overt q) a road accident in which the guilty driver does not stop to help the victim or to identify himself / herself
18) possess r) a house, apartment (flat), etc., where people live [4]

 

4. Match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left:

Automobile…  
motor homicide
negligent manslaughter
vehicular operation
voluntary substance
controlled vehicle
  Bigamy  
separate spouse
former period
first marriage
statutory crime
  Bribery  
improper individual
public receiving
private payment
voluntary official
corrupt use
Burglary  
sufficient provision
criminal place
statutory offense
criminal intent
closed breaking
     

 

 



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