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Translate the text into English.

 

 
 

По обычаю, существовавшему у древних народов, обвинители и судьи в доказательство своей беспристрастности умывали руки в присутствии свидетелей. Этим они показывали, что снимают с себя всякую ответственность за приговор. Отсюда возникло выражение “умывать руки”, смысл которого - “устраняться от ответственности за что-либо”. Возникновение этой метафоры (metaphor) обычно связывают с библейским эпизодом суда над Иисусом. Прокуратор Иудеи Понтий Пилат умыл руки перед толпой, отдав ей Иисуса для ужасной казни – распятия на кресте [3].

Unit 2 Particular Offenses(Part 1)

 

 

Reading

 

 

1. Read and translate the following groups of words derived from a common root:

 

victim – victimless – victimize

convict – convicted - conviction;

crime – criminal – criminality – criminalize – decriminalized –

criminalization;

prison – prisoner – imprison – imprisonment;

law – lawyer – lawful – unlawful;

suffice – sufficient – insufficient – sufficiently;

use – usual – usually – usage – abuse – abusive;

human – inhuman – humane – humanity – humanitarian – humanism.

 

Read and translate the following international words.

 

Separate, subject, federal, animal, domestic, exclude, human, humane, discipline, protect, time, materially, physical, contact, general, element.

 

Read the text and translate it. While reading the text try and find answers to these questions.

 

1. How are certain migratory animals and animals of endangered species protected by law?

2. Can a person burning a building be guilty of arson if the building is unoccupied?

3. What constitutes an essential element of the crime of assault or battery?

 


PARTICULAR OFFENSES

(Part 1)

 

Because the United States consists of 50 separate sovereign jurisdictions, plus the federal government and its territories and subdivisions, the types of acts which may be subject to criminal sanctions are numerous and can vary from place to place. In different jurisdictions the same criminal act may be known by a different names. Furthermore, even if an act is a crime in more than one jurisdiction, the grade or classification of offense may differ and thus be a felony in one state while constituting a misde­meanor, petty offense or perhaps even a non-criminal violation in another.

           
     
 
 

Some of the offenses recognized as crimes of one sort or another in most jurisdictions are:

Animals—Cruelty, abuse and neglect of animals which causes the inflic­tion of unjustifiable pain and suffering is a crime in most jurisdictions. This includes domestic animals, but can exclude animals used for legitimate research when done in a way that is as humane as possible under the circumstances. Of course, the usual practices of animal husbandry and the chastisement resorted to in good faith for the purpose of training or disciplining an animal does not constitute cruelty. It is also a crime under federal law to interfere with, harm or kill certain migratory animals or animals of a protected or endangered species.



 
 

Arson—The common law defined arson as the malicious and willful burning of the dwelling of another. Statutes have generally enlarged the common law definition of arson so as to include the burning of buildings and property other than dwelling houses. These statutes also apply to the owner of the property as well as others. The crime is frequently divided into degrees of arson. A more severe punishment is usually provided for the burning of a dwelling house, or burning in the nighttime, or burning under such circumstances as might endanger human life, than in cases of the burning of other buildings. A person burning a building can be guilty of arson even if the building is unoccupied. It is not necessary that the building be wholly or partially consumed or materially injured. It is sufficient if the fire is actually communicated to any part of the building, however small.

 
 

Assault and Battery ­–Assault is the demonstration of an unlawful intent by one person to inflict immediate injury upon another person then present. Physical contact is not an essential element of this offense, but a threat or offer of violence is. The offense has also been defined as an intentional attempt, by force and violence, to do injury to the person of another and as any attempt to commit a battery or any threatening gesture showing in itself or by words accompanying it an immediate intention, coupled with a present ability to commit a battery. Battery is the unlawful touching or striking of a person. Generally, an intention to do harm, or an unlawful intent, is an essential element of the crime of assault or battery. (The terms are sometimes used individually to mean both in criminal statutes). Although ordinary negligence will not result in a battery, some jurisdictions treat “wantonness” as a sufficient substitute for malice.

In many jurisdic­tions certain types of aggravated assault are distinguished from simple assault, and in some states the crime of assault is divided into several degrees, and more severe penalties are provided for the aggravated types. The higher degrees of aggravated assault consist of such offenses as assault with intent to kill, assault with intent to rape, assault with intent to rob, or assault in a manner likely to inflict great bodily injury or disgrace upon the victim. The defenses available in criminal prosecutions generally may be raised in prosecutions for assault and battery.

 
 

An act does not usually constitute criminal assault or battery where the person against whom it is committed consented to it. However, in cases of mutual combat, or fights by mutual agreement, both participants may be guilty of assault and battery. Self defense, defense of a third person, or justification may be asserted as a defense in a prosecution for assault and battery [1].

 

 

Vocabulary notes

 

cruelty жестокость (зд. жестокое обращение)
abuse злоупотребление (зд. дурное обращение)
neglect небрежение (зд. плохой уход)
domestic animal домашнее животное
husbandry животноводство
chastisement наказание
humane гуманный, человечный
human человеческий
migratory мигрирующий (зд. о животном мире, например, о перелетных птицах)
endanger подвергать опасности
endangered species вымирающие виды (животных), занесенные в так наз. Красную книгу
arson поджог
malice злобный умысел
dwelling жилище
guilty виновный
assault (n., v.) нападение, нападать
aggravated assault нападение при отягчающих обстоятельствах
battery нанесение побоев
assault and battery нападение с нанесением побоев
intent намерение
threat угроза
wantonness (wanton negligence) немотивированная оплошность
violence насилие, насильственные действия
rape (n., v.) изнасилование, насиловать
rob (n., v.) ограбление, грабить
bodily injury телесное повреждение
defense оборона
justification оправдание, оправдывающее обстоятельство

 

 

 

Vocabulary work

 

 

4. Find in the text the English for:

 

1) нападение при отягчающих обстоятельствах;

2) взаимное согласие;

3) причинение немотивированных страданий и боли;

4) в данных обстоятельствах;

5) более суровое наказание;

6) любая часть строения, сколь бы малой она ни была;

7) преднамеренная попытка с применением насилия;

8) намерение нанести ущерб (причинить вред);

9) самооборона;

10) защита третьего лица.

 

5. Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right:

 

1) violate a) state of having the same opinion
2) classify b) set something on fire
3) felony c) punishment for breaking a law or a rule
4) animal d) protect against attack
5) cruel e) a crime that is less serious than stealing or murder
6) burn f) give permission; agree
7) sufficient g) enough
8) threat h) bring a criminal charge against smb. in a court of law
9) penalty i) arrange into classes or groups
10) victim j) act against something
11) agreement k) a warning that one is going to hurt, punish smb.
12) consent l) a serious crime
13) defend m) a person that suffers pain, damage, or harm as a result of other people’s actions
14) prosecute n) a living creature, having senses and able to move itself
15) misde­meanor o) liking to cause pain or suffering [4]

 

6. Match the words on the right with the suitable attributes on the left:

 

Animals  
unjustifiable faith
migratory law
good animal
federal species
endangered birds
domestic pain
  Arson  
malicious building
willful punishment
dwelling life
severe house
human burning
unoccupied act
  Assault and battery  
unlawful substitute
bodily gesture
essential element
threatening assault
criminal statute
ordinary person
sufficient negligence
aggravated intent
mutual injury
third agreement

 



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