Сделай Сам Свою Работу на 5

Как можно изменить эти ложные представления?

Мы начали главу 1 с исследования идеи, что основными источниками гендерных различий являются социальные нормы и стереотипы, прививаемые нам обществом. Эти нормы и стереотипы укоренены в нашей культурной среде, и их можно легко обнаружить в литературных произведениях, фильмах, телепередачах, анекдотах и в различных видах деятельности, осуществляемой женщинами и мужчинами. Из-за желания быть социально корректными и нравиться окружающим люди принимают гендерные нормы почти автоматически. Кроме того, как утверждают Басси и Бандура (Bussey & Bandura, 1992, p. 1249):

"Маловероятно, что детям удастся привить эгалитарные (уравнительские) стандарты и модели поведения за счет одного лишь воздействия со стороны родителей, если эти стандарты и модели не будут одобрять группы сверстников и другие значимые элементы в обществе (Weisner & Wilson-Mitchell, 1990). В силу избыточной половой сегрегации и сильного давления со стороны сверстников, требующего приспособления, стереотипные гендерные стандарты могут быть очень устойчивыми и не поддаваться изменениям, если отсутствуют радикальные социальные перемены."

Радикальные социальные перемены, как же их можно вызвать? Как можем мы внести в социальные нормы изменения, необходимые для движения в сторону гендерно равноправного общества? Какую роль могут сыграть люди в изменении социальных ролей? Тойтс (Thoits, 1987) замечает, что человеческие существа — это вовсе не роботы, запрограммированные обществом; скорее они — несговорчивые актеры, способные стать бунтарями и изменить социальную структуру, если они того пожелают. Социальные психологи установили, что меньшинство может влиять на большинство и добиваться перемен, когда это меньшинство едино и уверено в себе (Forsyth, 1990).

Вспомним: когда мы смотрим на людей, стараясь понять, что является социально приемлемым, люди смотрят на нас. И если считать опросы общественного мнения показательными, тогда выясняется, что большинство людей симпатизируют гендерному равенству. А это наводит на мысль, что конформизм в отношении гендерных норм носит в значительной степени согласительный характер (являясь скорее общественным, чем индивидуальным конформизмом). Это означает, что вы можете влиять на перемены в большей степени, чем вам кажется. Если вы бросите нормам вызов своими словами или поступками, это может повлиять на других людей, которые про себя соглашаются с вами и готовы сделать то же. Как подтвердят вам социальные психолога, несколько бунтарей могут бросить большинству решительный вызов и изменить эти нормы (Latane, 1981; Moscovici, 1985). Следовательно, если вы верите в гендерное равенство, то должны быть готовы говорить о нем окружающим и демонстрировать его собственным поведением. Вы должны также поддерживать организации и политиков, которые ратуют за принятие законов, способствующих гендерному равенству, за участие государства в воспитании детей и за оказание помощи работающим родителям.



Заключительные замечания.

В заключение можно сказать, что социальная психология гендера подчеркивает: гендер — это социальная норма, к которой мы приспосабливаемся в силу нормативного давления (желания социального одобрения) и информационного давления (использования социальной информации, помогающей нам определять реальность).

Хотя исследования и не обнаруживают, что между мужчинами и женщинами существуют значительные расхождения по большинству качеств, мы считаем, что они очень не похожи друг на друга. Частично это происходит по той причине, что женщины и мужчины исполняют различные социальные роли, и, как следствие, мы полагаем, что между ними имеют место различия, которые оправдывают эти роли. Наше общество также указывает нам, что мужчины и женщины отличаются и должны отличаться друг от друга. Кроме того, наша врожденная когнитивная привычка разделять все на категории и действовать на основе такого разделения также способствует сохранению представления, что гендерные различия велики и актуальны. Мы еще больше склоняемся к тому, чтобы проводить грань между гендерами, и начинаем частично определять свою идентичность исходя из нашей гендерной принадлежности. Социальная гендерная психология переключает наше внимание с биологии на ситуативные и социальные силы, лежащие в основе разделения на мужчин и женщин, и тем самым снабжает нас указаниями в отношении того, как можно добиться гендерного равенства. В то же время социальная психология объясняет, почему изменения в гендерных ролях и стереотипах будут протекать медленно и иметь неопределенный характер в отсутствии согласованных усилий. Эти усилия обычно исходят от женщин, но изменения могут происходить более быстрыми темпами, если мы признаем, что традиционные роли несправедливы, не подходят для современного общества и ограничивают не только женщин, но и мужчин.

Резюме.

Опросы общественного мнения показывают, что ситуация меняется в направлении гендерного равенства, но исследования различий в заработной плате, участия женщин в управлении, распределения домашних обязанностей, изображения мужчин и женщин в СМИ и т. д. свидетельствуют, что изменения должны быть еще большими.

Гибкий график работы, оплачиваемые отпуска по уходу за ребенком для матерей и отцов, субсидируемый качественный присмотр за детьми на производстве, программы по выравниванию заработной платы и программы поддерживающих действий — все это рекомендуется в качестве способов реструктуризации производства с целью устранения половой дискриминации и увеличения совместимости трудовой и семейной жизни.

Для достижения гендерного равенства необходима организация качественного и недорогого присмотра за детьми. Большинство исследований показывают, что интеллектуальное, социальное и эмоциональное развитие детей, чьи матери работают вне дома, сравнимо с развитием детей, чьи матери не заняты на производстве.

Эффективному осуществлению программ поддерживающих действий мешают предположения, что их реципиенты не обладают квалификацией, необходимой для выполнения своей работы, а также отсутствие социальной поддержки. Вдобавок количество женщин и представителей меньшинств в организациях часто бывает недостаточно большим, чтобы противостоять мышлению по принципу «это исключение из правил». Имеются способы увеличения эффективности ААР, такие, как разъяснение возможных последствий поддерживающих действий; предоставление работникам информации, касающейся квалификации лиц, нанятых по программе поддерживающих действий; создание возможностей для осуществляемого на равной основе личного контакта между такими сотрудниками и другими работниками.

Традиционное разделение обязанностей в доме является одним из симптомов гендерного неравенства, способствуя гендерно-стереотипному мышлению у детей и конфликтным отношениям. Люди приветствуют более справедливое распределение обязанностей, но по ряду причин (например, из-за социальных норм, конкурирующих установок, неумения выполнять домашнюю работу) несоответствие между установками и поведением продолжает сохраняться.

Педагоги и родители должны создавать вокруг детей среду, в которой царит гендерная свобода, моделировать равноправные гендерно-ролевые отношения и следить за тем, чтобы дети не перенимали гендерные стереотипы, изображаемые в СМИ.

Переменам препятствуют пять ложных представлений о гендерах. К ним относятся следующие взгляды: 1) гендерные различия велики; 2) гендерные различия являются фундаментальными биологическими различиями; 3) биологические роли способствуют лучшему приспособлению женщин и мужчин к выполнению различных ролей; 4) гендеры обособлены друг от друга, но равны; 5) традиционные гендерные роли наиболее полно удовлетворяют потребности общества.

Библиография.

Adams, J. S.(1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). New York Academic Press.

Aiello, J. R.(1987). Human spatial behavior. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), The handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 389-504). New York: John Wiley.

Allport, G.(1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.

American Psychiatric Association.(1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Aneshensel, C. S. (1986). Marital and employment role-strain, social support, and depression among adult women. In S. E. Hobfoll (Ed.), Stress, social support, and women (pp. 99-114). New York: Hemisphere.

Anson, 0., Levenson, A., & Bonneh, D. Y.(1990). Gender and health on the kibbutz. Sex Roles, 22,213-236.

Aries, E. J., & Johnson, E. L.(1983). Close friendship in adulthood: Conversational content between same-sex friends. Sex Roles, 9,1183-1196.

Aronson, E.(1992). The social animal (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Freeman.

Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70 (9. Whole No. 416).

Ashmore, R. D.(1990). Sex, gender, and the individual. In L. A. Pervin (Ed), Handbook of personality theory and research. New York: Guilford Press.

Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K.(1979). Sex stereotypes and implicit personality theory: Toward a cognitive-social psychological conceptualization. Sex Roles, 5, 219-248.

Ashton, E. (1983). Measures of play behavior. The influence of sex-role stereotyped children's books. Sex Roles, 9, 43-47.

Atkin, 0. J., Moorman, J., & Linn, C. A.(1991). Ready for prime-time: Network series devoted to working women in the 1980's. Sex Roles, 25, 677-685.

Auckett, R., Ritchie, J., & Mill, K.(1988). Gender differences in friendship patterns. Sex Roles, 19,57-66.

Averill, J. R.(1982). Anger and aggression. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Bailey, B. L.(1988). From front porch to back seat: Courtship in twentieth century America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bakan, D.(1966). The duality of human existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Baker, D. P., & Jones, D. P. (1993). Creating gender equality: Cross-national gender stratification and mathematical performance. Sociology of Education, 66,91-103.

Bandura, A.(1969). Social learning theory of identificatory process. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Bandura, A.(1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Baron, J. N., & Bielby, W. T.(1984). The organization of work in a segmented economy. American Sociological Review, 49,454-473.

Baron, J. N., Davis-Blake, A., & Bielby, W. T.(1986). The structure of opportunity: How promotion ladders vary within and among organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31,248-273.

Barry, D.(1987). Dave Barry's guide to love and/or sex. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.

Barry, D. (1991). Dave Barry talks back. New York: Crown.

Barry, H., Bacon, M. K., & Child, I. L.(1967). Definitions, ratings, and bibliographic sources for child training practices of 110 cultures. In C. Ford (Ed.), Cross-cultural approaches (pp. 293-331). New Haven, CT: Human Relations Areas Files Press.

Barry, H., Josephson, L, Lauer, E., & Marshall, C.(1976). Traits inculcated in childhood: Five cross-cultural codes. Ethnology, /5,83-114.

Barth, R. J., & Kinder, B. N. (1988). A theoretical analysis of sex differences in same-sex friendships. Sex Roles, 19, 349-363.

Baruch, G. K., & Bamett, R, C.(1987). Role quality and psychological well-being. In F. J. Crosby (Ed.), Spouse, parent, and worker: On gender and multiple gender roles (pp. 63-73). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Basow, S. A.(19S6a). Correlates of sex-typing in Fiji. Psychology Women Quarterly, 10,429-442.

Basow, S. A.(1986b). Gender stereotypes (2nd ed.). Monterey, CA: Basic Books.

Bass, В. М.(1981). Stogdill's handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.

Baumrind, D.(1982). Are androgynous individuals more effective persons and parents? Child Development, 53, 44-75.

Beauvais, C., & Spence, J.(1987). Gender, prejudice, and categorization. Sex Roles, 16, 89-100.

Beckman, L. J., & Houser, В. В.(1979). The more you have, the more you do: The relationship between wife's employment, sex-role attitudes, and household behavior. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 4,160-174.

Bell, E. L., Denton, T. C., & Nkomo, S.(1993). Women of color in management: Toward an inclusive analysis. In E. A. Fagenson (Ed.), Women in management: Trends, issues, and challenges in managerial diversity (pp. 105-130). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Bell, N. J., & Carver, W. A.(1980). A reevaluation of gender label effects: Expectant mothers' responses to infants. Child Development, 51,925-927.

Belle, D.(1987). Gender differences in the social moderators of stress. In R. C. Barnett, L. Biener, & G. K. Baruch (Eds.), Gender and stress (pp. 257-277). New York: Free Press.

Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354-364.

Bem, S. L.(1989). Genital knowledge and gender constancy in preschool children. Child Development, 60,649-662.

Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Benbow, С. P., & Stanley, J. С. (1980). Sex differences in mathematical ability: Fact or artifact? Science, 210,1262-1264.

Bergen, D. J., & Williams, J. E. (1991). Sex stereotypes in the United States revisited: 1972-1988. Sex Roles, 24, 413-423.

Bernard, J. (1987). The female world from a global perspective. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Berry, J. W. (1980). Introduction to methodology. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Methodology (Vol. 2, pp. 1-14). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Best, B. J., & Specter, P. E. (1984, March). The effects of applicant attractiveness, managerial attributes and gender on executive employment decisions. Paper presented at the 30th annual meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans.

Betz, N. (1993). Women's career development In F. L. Denmark & M. A. Paludi (Eds.), Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories (pp. 627-684). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Bhatnagar, D. (1988). Professional women in organizations: New paradigms for research and action. Sex Roles, 18, 343-355.

Bielby, W. Т., & Bielby, D. D. (1989). Family ties: Balancing commitments to work and family in dual earner households. American Sociological Review, 54,776-789.

Binlon, V. J. (1990). Psychological androgyny: A black female perspective. Sex Roles, 22,487-506.

Bimbaum, D. W., Nosanchuk, T. A., & Croll, W. L (1980). Children's stereotypes about sex differences in emotionality. Sex Roles, 6,435-443.

Bjorkqvist, K.(1994). Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: A review of recent research. Sex Roles, 30,177-188.

Bjorkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J, & Kaukianen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends regarding direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18,117-127.

Bjorkqvist, K., & Niemela, P. (1992). New trends in the study of female aggression. In K. Bjorkqvist & P. Niemela (Eds.), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Bjorkqvist, K., Osterman, K., & Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1994). Sex differences in covert aggression among adults. Aggressive Behavior, 20,27-33.

Blau, F. D., & Ferber, M. A. (1987). Occupations and earnings of women workers. In K. S. Koziara, M. H. Moskow, & L D. Tanner (Eds.), Working women: Past, present, future (pp. 37-68). Washington, DC: BNA Books.

Blea, I.I. (1992). La chicana and the intersection of race, class, and gender. New York: Praeger.

Blier, M. J., & Blier-Wilson, L A. (1989). Gender differences in self-rated emotional expressiveness. Sex Roles, 21, 287-295.

Block, J. H. (1973). Conceptions of sex-role: Some cross-cultural and lonojtudnal perspectives. American Psychologist, 28,512-626.

Block, J. H. (1979, September). Personality development in males and females: The influence of differential socialization. Paper presented as part of the master Lecture Series at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.

Bloom-Feshbach, J. (1981). Historical perspectives on the father's role. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the fatlier in child development (pp. 71-112). New York: Wiley.

Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1983). American couples. New York: William Morrow.

Bly, R. (1990). Iron John: A book about men. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Bouchier, D. (1984). The feminist challenge. New York: Schocken.

Bradbard, M. R. (1985). Sex differences in adults' gifts and children's toy requests at Christmas. Psychological Reports, 56,969-970.

Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York: Academic Press.

Brehm, S. S., & Kassin, S. M. (1992). Social psychology (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.

Bretl, D. J., & Cantor, J. (1988). The portrayal of men and women in U. S. television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years. Sex Roles, 18,595-609.

Briere, J., & Lanktree, C. (1983). Sex-role related effects of bias in language. Sex Roles, 9,625-632.

Brody, L. R. (1984). Sex and age variations in the quality and intensity of children's emotional attributions to hypothetical situations. Sex Roles, 11, 51-59.

Bronstein, P. (1984). Differences in mothers' and fathers' behaviors toward children: A cross-cultural comparison. Developmental Psychology, 6,995-1003.

Brophy, J. (1985). Interactions of male and female students with male and female teachers. In L. C. Wilkenson & С. В. Marrett (Eds.), Gender influences in classroom interaction. Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum.

Bulbeck, C. (1988). One world women's movement. London: Pluto Press.

Burbank, V. K. (1994). Cross-cultural perspectives on aggression in women and girls: An introduction. Sex Roles, 30,169-176.

Burn, S. M.(1993). The social identity paradox and the effects of male-bashing on collective self-esteem. Paper submitted for publication.

Burn, S. M., & Laver, G. D. (1994). Normative and informational pressure in conformity to the male role: Males', females', and friends'masculinity ideologies. Paper submitted for publication.

Burn, S. M., Nederend, S., & O'Neil, A. K. (1994, August). Childhood tomboyism and adult androgyny. Paper presented at the 102nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

Buss, D. M.(1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypothesis tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 72,1-49.

Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1992). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing gender development. Child Development, 63,1236-1250.

Bylsma, W. H., & Major, B. (1992). Two routes to eliminating gender differences in personal entitlement. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16,193-200.

Caddick, B. (1982). Perceived illegitimacy and intergroup relations. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Social identity and intergroup relations (pp. 137-154). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cain, R. (1991). Stigma management and gay identity development. Social Work, 36,67-73.

Caldera, Y. M., Huston, A. C., & O'Brien, M.(1989). Social interactions and play patterns of parents and toddlers with feminine, masculine, and neutral toys. Child Development, 60,70-76.

Caldwell, M. A., & Peplau, L. A. (1982). Sex differences in same-sex friendship. Sex Roles, 8,721-731.

Campbell, A., Muncer, S., & Coyle, E. (1992). Social representation of aggression as an explanation for gender differences: A preliminary study. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 95-108.

Canino, G. (1982). Transactional family patterns: A preliminary exploration of Puerto Rican female adolescents. In R. E. Zambrana (Ed.), Work, family, and health: Latina women in transition (pp. 27-36). New York: Hispanic Research Center.

Cann, A., & Gamett, A. K. (1984). Sex stereotype impact on competence ratings by children. Sex Roles, 11,333-343.

Cann, A., & Siegfried, W. D. (1990). Gender stereotypes and dimensions of effective leader behavior. Sex Roles, 23, 413-419.

Caplan, P. J. (1991). Delusional dominating personality disorder (DDPD). Feminism and Psychology, 1,171-174.

Carter, D. В., & McCloskey, L. A. (1984). Peers and the maintenance of sex-typed behavior: The development of children's conceptions of cross-gender behavior in their peers. Social Cognition, 2,294-314.

Catalyst. (1990). Catalyst's study of women in corporate management. New York: Catalyst.

Chessler, P., & Goodman, E. J. (1976). Women, money, and power. New York: Morrow.

Cialdini, R. B. (1993). Influence: Science and practice (3rd ed.). New York: Harper-Collins.

Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (1989). Infant day care: Maligned or malignant? American Psychologist, 44,266-273.

Cobb, N. J., Stevens-Long, J., & Goldstein, S.(1982). The influence of televised models on toy preference in children. Sex Roles, 8,1075-1080.

Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Academic Press.

Condry, J., & Condry, S. (1976). Sex differences: A study of the eye of the beholder. Child Development, 47,812-819.

Condry, J. C., & Ross, D. F. (1985). Sex and aggression: The influence of gender label on the perception of aggression in children. Child Development, 56,225-233.

Connor, J. M., Schackman, M., & Serbin, L A. (1978). Sex-related differences in response to practice on a visual-spatial test and generalization to a related test. Child Development, 49,24-29.

Connor, J. M., & Serbin, L.A. (1985). Visual-spatial skill: Is it important for mathematics? Can it be taught? In S. F. Chipman, L. R. Brush, & D. M. Wilson (Eds.), Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation (pp. 151-174). Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum.

Cook, S. W. (1985). Experimenting on social issues: The case of school desegregation. American Psychologist, 40,452-460.

Crabb, P.В., & Bielawski, D. (1994). The social representation of material culture and gender in children's books. Sex Roles, 30,69-79.

Cramer, R. E., Dragna, M., Cupp, R. G., & Stewart, P.(1991). Contrast effects in the evaluation of the male sex role. Sex Roles, 24,181-193.

Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma-and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96,608-630.

Crosby, F. J. (1982). Relative deprivation and working women. New York: Oxford University Press.

Crosby, F. J. (1987). Job satisfaction and domestic life. In M. D. Lee and R. N. Kunango (Eds.), Management of work and personal life. New York: Praeger.

Crosby, F. J.(1991). Juggling: The unexpected advantages of balancing career and home for women and their families. New York: Free Press.

Cross, S. E., & Markus, H. R. (1993). Gender in thought, belief, and action: A cognitive approach. In A. E. Beall & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of gender (pp. 55-88). New York: Guilford Press.

Crow Dog, M. (1993). Ohitika woman. New York: Grove Press.

Culp, R. E., Cook, A. S., & Housely, P. C. (1983). A comparison of observed and reported adult-infant interactions: Effects of perceived sex. Sex Roles, 9,475-479.

Davidson, A. R., & Thomson, E. (1980). Cross-cultural studies of attitudes and beliefs. In H. C. Triandis & W. W. Lambert (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 25-72). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Davis, D. M.(1991). Portrayals of women in prime-time network television: Some demographic characteristics. Sex Roles, 23,325-332.

Davis, S. (1990). Men as success objects and women as sex objects: A study of personal advertisements. Sex Roles, 23, 43-51.

Deaux, K. (1985). Sex and gender. Annual Review of Psychology, 36,49-81.

Deaux, K. (1993). Sorry, wrong number — A reply to Gentile's call. Psychological Science, 4,125-126.

Deaux, K., Winton, W., Crowley, M., & Lewis, L.L. (1985). Level of categorization and content of sex stereotypes. Social Cognition, 3,145-167.

Degler, C. N. (1990). Darwinians confront gender; or, There is more to it than history. In D. L. Rhode (Ed.), Theoretical perspectives on sexual difference (pp. 33-46). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Demo, D. H., & Acock, A. C. (1993). Family diversity and the division of domestic labor. Family Relations, 42,323-331.

Denmark, F. L, & Fernandez, L. C. (1993). Historical development of the psychology of women. In F. L Denmark & M. A. Paludi (Eds.), Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories (pp. 3-22). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Derlega, V. J., & Berg, J. H. (1987). Self-disclosure: Theory, research, and therapy. New York: Plenum Press.

Dew, M. A. (1985). The effect of attitudes on inferences of homosexuality and perceived physical attractiveness in women. Sex Roles, 12,143-155.

Dion, K. L. (1986). Responses to perceived discrimination and relative deprivation. In J. M. Olson, C. P. Herman, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Relative deprivation and social comparison: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 4, pp. 159-179). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Dion, K. L, & Schuller, R. A. (1990). Ms. and the manager: A tale of two stereotypes. Sex Roles, 22,569-577.

Dolgin, K. G., Meyer, L, & Schwartz, J. (1991). Effects of gender, target's gender, topic, and self-esteem on disclosure to best and middling friends. Sex Roles, 25,311-329.

Donnell, S. M., & Hall, J. (1980). Men and women as managers: A significant case of no significant difference. Organizational Dynamics, 8,60-76.

Dossey, J. A., Mullis, I. V. S., Lindquist, M. M., & Chambers, D. L.(1988). The mathematics report card: Are we measuring up? Trends and achievement based on the 1986 National Assessment. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Doyle, J. A. (1983). The male experience. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown.

Duane, M. J. (1989). Sex differences in styles of conflict management. Psychological Reports, 65,1033-1034.

Dubisch, J. (1993). Foreign chickens' and other outsiders: Gender and community in Greece. American Ethnologist, 20,272-287.

Dugger, K. (1988). Social location and gender role attitudes: A comparison of black and white women. Gender and Society, 2,425-448.

Dweck, C. S., & Bush, E. S. (1978). Sex differences in learned helplessness: I. Differential debilitation with peer and adult evaluators. Developmental Psychology, 11,147-156.

Dweck, C. S., Davidspn, W., Nelson, S., & Enna, B. (1978). Sex differences in learned helplessness: II. The contingencies of evaluative feedback in the classroom and III. An experimental analysis. Developmental Psychology, 14, 268-276.

Eagly, A. H. (1983). Gender and social influence: A social psychological analysis. American Psychologist, 38,971-995.

Eagly, A. H.(1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W.(1985). Gender and influenceability: Stereotype versus behavior. In V. E. O'Leary, R. K. Unger, & B. S. Wallston (Eds.), Women, gender, and social psychology (pp.225-256). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Eberhardt, J. L, & Fiske, S. T. (1994). Affirmative action in theory and implementation: Issues of power, ambiguity, and gender versus race. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 15,201-220.

Eccles, J. S. (1984a). Sex differences in achievement patterns. In T. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 32. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Eccles (Parsons) J. S. (1984b). Sex differences in mathematics participation, in M. L Maehr & M. W. Steinkamp (Eds.), Women in science: Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 2). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Eccles, J. S. (1989). Bringing young women to math and science. In M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought Psychological perspectives (pp. 36-68). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Eccles (Parsons), J. S. (1990). Gender-role socialization. In R. M. Baron & W. G. Graziano (Eds.), Social psychology (pp. 160-191). Fort Worth, TX: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Eccles, J. S., & Blumenfeld, P. (1985). Classroom experiences and student gender: Are there differences and do they matter? In L. C. Wilkenson & C. Marrett (Eds.), Gender influences in classroom interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Eccles, J. S., & Jacobs, J. (1986). Social forces shape math attitudes and performance. Signs, 11,367-380.

Eccles-Parsons, J., Adler, Т., & Kaczala, C. (1982). Socialization of achievement attitudes and beliefs: Parental influences. Child Development, 53,310-321.

Edwards, G. H. (1992). The structure and content of the male gender role stereotype: An exploration of subtypes. Sex Roles, 27, 533-551.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Schaller, M., & Miller, P. A.(1989). Sympathy and personal distress: Development, gender differences, and interrelations of indexes. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Empathy and Related Emotional Responses: New Directions lor Child Development, 44, 107-127.

Emmerich, W., Goldman, K. S., Kirsh, В., & Sharbany, R.(1977). Evidence for a transitional phase in the development of gender constancy. Child Development, 48, 930-936.

Engle, P. L.(1993). Influences of mothers' and fathers' income on children's nutritional status in Guatemala. Social Science & Medicine, 37,1303-1312.

Engle, P. L, & Breaux, C. (1994). Is there a father instinct? Fathers' responsibility lor children. Report for The Population Council (New York) and the International Center for Research on Women (Washington, DC).

Erickson, R. J., & Gecas, V. (1991). Social class and fatherhood. In F. W. Bozett & S. M. H. Hanson (Eds.), Fatherhood and familles in cultural context (pp. 114-137). New York: Springer-Verlage.

Erlich, H. J. (1973). The social psychology of prejudice: A systematic theoretical review and prepositional inventory of the American social psychological study of prejudice. New York: Wiley.

Estes, C. P. (1992). Women who run with the wolves. New York: Ballantine.

Etaugh, C., & Liss, M. B.(1992). Home, school, and playroom: Training grounds for adult gender roles. Sex Roles, 26,129-147.

Etaugh, C., & Poertner, P. (1992). Perceptions of women: Influence of performance, marital and parental variables. Sex Roles, 26,311-321.

Fagot, B. I. (1973). The influence of sex of child on parental reactions to toddler children. Child Development, 49,459-465.

Fagot, B. I., & Leinbach, M. D.(1989). The young child's gender schema: Environmental input, internal organization. Child Development. 60,663-672.

Fairchild, В., & Hayward, N.(1989). Now that you know: What every parent should know about homosexuality. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Farr, K. (1988). Dominance bonding through the good old boys sociability group. Sex Roles, 18, 259-277.

Fausto-Sterling, A. (1985). Myths of gender. New York: Basic Books.

Feingold, A.(1988). Cognitive gender differences are disappearing. American Psychologist, 43,95-103.

Feinman, S. (1981). Why is cross-sex-role behavior more approved for girls than for boys? A status characteristic approach. Sex Roles, 7, 289-299.

Ferree, M. M. (1980). Satisfaction with housework. In S. F. Berk (Ed.), Women and household labor (pp. 89-112). Beverly Hills: Sage.

Ferree, M. M. (1987). Family and job for working-class women: Gender and class systems seen from below. In N. Gerstel & H. E. Gross (Eds.), Families and work (pp. 289-301). Philadelphia: Templo University Press.

Fierman, J. (1990, July 30). Why women still don't hit the top. Fortune, p. 42.

Filer, R.(1985). Male-female wage differences: The importance of compensating differentials. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 38, 426-437.

Filer, R.(1989). Occupational segregation, compensating differentials, and comparable worth. In R. Michael, H. Hartmann, & B. O'Farrell (Eds.), Pay equity: Empirical inquiries (pp. 153-170). Washington, DC: National Academy.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley.

Fiske, S. Т., Bersoff, D. N., Borgida, E., Deaux, K., & Heilman, M. E.(1991). Social science research on trial: Use of sex stereotyping research in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins. American Psychologist, 46,1049-1060.

Fiske, S. Т., & Stevens, L. E.(1993). What's so special about sex? Gender stereotyping and discrimination. In S. Oskamp & M. Costanzo (Eds.), Gender issues in contemporary society (pp. 173-196) Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Fiske, S. Т., & Taylor, S. E.(1984). Social cognition. New York: Random House.

Folger, R.(1987). Reformulating the preconditions of resentment. A referent congitions model. In J. C. Masters & W. P. Smith (Eds.), Social comparison, social justice, and relative deprivation (pp. 183-215). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Forsyth, D. R.(1990). Group dynamics (2nd ed.). Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.

Fowlkes, M. R.(1987). Role combinations and role conflict: Introductory perspective. In F. J. Crosby (Ed.), Spouse, parent, worker: On gender and multiple social roles (pp. 3-10). New Haven. CT: Yale University Press.

Frank, E.(1988). Business students' perceptions of women in management. Sex Roles, 19,107-118.

French, M.(1992). The war against women. New York: Summit Books.

Friedan, B.(1963). The feminine mystique. New York: Norton.

Friedman, L(1989). Mathematics and the gender gap: A meta-analysis of recent studies on sex differences in mathematical tasks. Review of Educational Research, 59, 185-213.

Fumham, A., & Singh, A.(1986). Memory for information about sex differences. Sex Roles, 15,479-486.

Furstenberg, F. F., Jr.(1988). Child care after divorce and remarriage. In E. M. Hetherington & J. D. Arasteh (Eds.), Impact of divorce, singleparenting, and stepparenting on children (рр. 245-561). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gallup Report(1987, December). U. S. women endorse jobs, marriage, and children. (Rep. No. 267, pp. 24-25).

Garlen, H.(1982). Attributions for the success and failure of female managers: A replication and extension. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 7,155-162.

Gastil, J.(1990). Generic pronouns and sexist language: The oxymoronic character of masculine generics. Sex Roles, 23,629-643.

Geary, D. C.(1989). A model for representing gender differences in the pattern of cognitive abilities. American Psychologist, 102,1155-1157.

Geis, F. L(1993). Self-fulfilling prophecies: A social psychological view of gender. In A. E. Beall & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of gender (pp. 9-54). New York: Guilford Press.

Geis, F. L, Brown, V., Jennings, J., & Porter, N.(1984). TV commercials as achievement scripts for women. Sex Roles, 10,513-525.

Gentile, D. A.(1993). Just what are sex and gender, anyway? A call for a new terminological standard. Psychological Science, 4,120-122.

Gibbons, J. L, Stiles, D. A., & Shkodriani, G. M.(1991). Adolescents' attitudes toward family and gender roles: An international comparison. Sex Roles, 25,625-643.

Gilligan, C.(1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Glass, G. V., McGaw, В., & Smith, M. L(1981). Metaanalysis in social research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Click, P.(1991). Trait-based and sex-based discrimination in occupational prestige, occupational salary, and hiring. Sex Roles, 25,351-378.

Goffman, I.(1977). The arrangement between the sexes. Theory and Society, 4,301-332.

Gondolf, E. W.(1988). Who are those guys? Toward a behavioral typology of batterers. Violence and Victims, 3, 187-203.

Gottleib, B. H., & Wagner, F.(1991). Stress and support processes in close relationships. In J. Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping (pp. 165-188). New York: Plenum Press.

Gove, W.(1972). The relationship between sex roles, marital status, and mental illness. Social Forces, 51,34-44.

Gove, W., & Tudor, J.(1973). Adult sex roles and mental illness. In J. Huber (Ed.), Changing women in a changing society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Grady, K.(1979). Androgyny reconsidered. In J. H. Williams (Ed.), Psychology of women: Selected Readings (pp. 172-177). New York: Norton.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S.(1993). Job performance attributions and career advancement prospects: An examination of gender and race effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 55, 273-297.

Gunter, N. C., & Gunter, B. G.(1990). Domestic division of labor among working couples: Does androgyny make a difference? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14,355-370.

Gutek, B. A., & Cohen, A. G.(1987). Sex ratios, sex role spillover, and sex at work: A comparison of men's and women's experience. Human Relations, 40, 97-115.

Hall, D. T. (1990, Winter). Promoting the work/family balance: An organizational change approach: Organizational Dynamics, pp. 5-18.

Hall, J. A.(1984). Nonverbal sex differences: Communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Halpern, D. F.(1992). Sex differences in cognitive abilities (2nd ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Eribaum.

Hamilton, D. L.(1981). Illusory correlation as a basis for stereotyping. In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hampson, E., & Kimura, D.(1988). Reciprocal effects of hormonal fluctuations on human motor and perceptual-spatial skills. Behavioral Neuroscience, 102,456-495.

Harding, S.(1986). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Hargreaves, D.(1987). The psychology of sex roles. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hastie, R. (1981). Schematic principles in human memory. In E.T. Higgins, C. P. Herman, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 1, pp. 39-70). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hawkins, A. J., & Roberts, T. A. (1992). Designing a primary intervention to help dual-earner couples share housework and childcare. Family Relations, 41,169-177.

Hays, R. B. (1988). Friendship. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 391-408). New York: Wiley.

Heilman, M. E. (1983). Sex bias in work settings: The lack of fit model. In L. L. Cummings & В. М. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 269-298). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Heilman, M. E. (1994). Affirmative action: Some unintended consequences for working women. Research in Organizational Behavior, 16, 125-169.

Heilman, M. E., Block, C. J., & Lucas, J. A. (1992). Presumed incompetent? Stigmatization and affirmative action efforts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 536-644.

Heilman, M. E., Lucas, J., & Kaplow, S.(1990). Self-derogating consequences of sex-based preferential selection: The moderating role of initial self-confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 46,202-216.

Heilman, M. E., & Martell, R. F. (1986). Exposure to successful women: Antidote to sex discrimination in applicant screening decisions? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37,376-390.

Heister. G, Landis, Т., Regard, M., & Schroeder-Heister, P.(1989). Shift of functional cerebral asymmetry during the menstrual cycle. Neuropsychologia, 27,871-880.

Helgeson, V. S. (1990). The role of masculinity in a prognostic predictor of heart attack severity. Sex Roles, 22,755-774.

Hellwege, D. R., Perry, K., & Dobson, J. (1988). Perceptual differences in gender ideas among heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Sex Roles, 19,735-746.

Henley, N. M. (1989). Molehill or mountain? What we know and don't know about sex bias in language. In M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 59-78). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Hepbum, C.(1985). Memory for the frequency of sex-typed versus neutral behaviors: Implications for the maintenance of sex stereotypes. Sex Roles, 12,771-776.

Hewlett, B. S. (1992). Husband-wife reciprocity and the father-infant relationship among Aka pygmies. In B. S. Hewlett (Ed.), Father-child relations: Cultural and biosocial contexts (pp. 153-176). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Hochschild, A. (1989). The second shift. New York: Viking Press.

Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture's consequences: International ditferences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Hollander, E. P. (1983). Women and leadership. In H. H. Blumenfield, A. P. Hare, V. Kent, & M. Davies (Eds.), Small groups and social interaction (Vol. 1, pp. 423-429). New York: Wiley.

Horner, M. S.(1969, June). Fail: Bright women. Psychology Today, p. 36.

Hort, B. E., Leinbach, M. D., & Fagot, B. I. (1991). Is there coherence among the cognitive components of gender acquisition? Sex Roles, 24,195-207.

Hubbard, R. (1990). The political nature of 'human nature.' In D. L. Rhode (Ed), Theoretical perspectives on sexual difference (pp. 63-73). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Hudak, M. A. (1993). Gender schema theory revisited: Men's stereotypes of American women. Sex Roles, 28,279-293.

Huston, A. C. (1983). Sex-typing. In P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 387-467). New York: Wiley.

Hyde, J. S. (1984a). Children's understanding of sexist language. Developmental Psychology, 20,697-706.

Hyde, J. S. (1984b). How large are gender differences in aggression: A developmental meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 20,722-736.

Hyde, J. S. (1986). Gender differences in aggression. In J. A. Hyde & M. C. Linn (Eds.), The psychology of gender: Advances through meta-analysis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hyde, J. S. (1991). Half the human experience: The psychology of women (4th ed.). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Company.

Hyde, J. S. (1992). Gender and sex: So what has meta-analysis done for me? The Psychology Teacher Network Newsletter, 2,2-6.

Hyde, J. S., Fennema, E., & Lamon, S. J. (1990b). Gender comparisons of mathematics attitudes and affect: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14,299-324.

Hyde, J. S., & Frost, L. A. (1993). Meta-analysis in the psychology of women. In F. L. Denmark & M. A. Paludi (Eds.), Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories (pp. 67-104). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (1986). The psychology of gender: Advances through meta-analysis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hyde, J. S., Rosenberg, B. G., & Behrman, J. (1977). Tomboyism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2,73-75.

Ickovics, J. R. (1989). Is any job better than no job at all? The social psychological consequences of underemployment for women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50,5926B. (University Microfilms No. 90-09,214).

Ilgen, D. R., & Youtz, M. A. (1986). Factors affecting the evaluation and development of minorities in organizations. Personnel and Human Resources Management, 4,307-337.

llyas, Q. S. M.(1990). Determinants of perceived role conflict among women in Bangladesh. Sex Roles, 22,237-248.

Ishii-Kuntz, M. (1993). Japanese fathers: Work demands and family roles. In J. C. Hood (Ed.), Men, work, and family (pp. 45-67). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Jacklin, C. N. (1989). Female and mate: Issues of gender. American Psychologist, 44,127-133.

Jacobs, J. A. (1992). Women's entry into management: Trends in earnings, authority, and values among salaried managers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37,282-301.

Jacobs, J. A., & Steinberg, R.(1990). Compensating differentials and the male-female wage gap: Evidence from the New York State Comparable Worth Study. Social Forces, 69,439-468.

Jankowiak, W. (1992). Father-child relations in urban China. In B. S. Hewlett (Ed.), Father-child relations: Cultural and biosocial contexts (pp. 345-363). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Johnson, J., & Ettema, J. S. (1962). Positive images: Breaking stereotypes with children's television. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Johnson, J. Т., & Shulman, G. A. (1983). More alike than meets the eye: Perceived gender differences in subjective experience and its display. Sex Roles, 19,67-79.

Jones, В. Н., & McNamara, K. (1991). Attitudes toward women and their work roles: Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations. Sex Roles, 24,21-29.

Jones, G. P., & Dembo, M. H. (1989). Age and sex role differences in intimate friendships during childhood and adolescence. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 35,445-462.

Junn, E. N., Beason, K., Endo, E., Von Rotz, D., & Lacayo, A. (1994, August). Portrayals of love, marriage, and sexuality in Walt Disney's animated films. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association meeting, Los Angeles.

Kagan, J. (1964). Acquisition and significance of sex-typing and sex-role concepts and attitudes. In M. L. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of child development research. New York: Sage.

Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kalin, R., & Tilby, R. (1978). Development and validation of a sex-role ideology scale. Psychological Report, 42, 731-738.

Kanter, R. M. (1976). The impact of hierarchical structures on the work behavior of women and men. Social Problems, 23, 415-430.

Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.

Kapian, A., Brooks, В., McComb, A, L, Shapiro, E. R., & Sodano, A. (1983). Women and anger in psychotherapy. Women and Therapy, 2,29-40.

Katzenstein, M. F. (1989). Organizing against violence: Strategies of the Indian women's movement. Pacific Affairs, 62,53-71.

Kenrick, O. T. (1987). Gender, genes, and the social environment: A biosocial interactionist perspective. In P. Shaver & C. Hendrick (Eds.), Sex and gender: Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 14-43). Beverly Hills, Sage.

Kenrick, D. T. (1988). Biology: Si! Hard-wired ability: Maybe no. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 199-200.

Kerig, P. K., Alyoshina, Y. Y., & Volovich, A. S. (1993). Gender-role socialization in contemporary Russia. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 389-408.

Kibria, N., Barnett, R. C., Baruch, G. K., & Marshall, N. L.(1990). Homemaking-role quality and the psychological well-being and distress of employed women. Sex Roles, 22, 327-347.

Kilmartin, C. T. (1994). The masculine self. New York: Macmillan.

Kimball, M. M. (1986). Television and sex role attitudes. In T. Williams (Ed), The impact of television: A natural experiment in three communities. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Kimmel, M. S. (1987). The contemporary 'crisis' of masculinity in historical perspective. In H. Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities (pp. 121-154). Boston, MA: Alien & Unwin.

Kimmel, M. S. (1992). Issues for men in the 1990's. University of Miami Law Review, 48,671-683.

Kimmel, M. S. (1994). Masculinity as homophobia: Fear, shame, and silence in the construction of gender identity. In H. Brod and M. Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 119-141). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kimmel, M. S., & Kaufman, M. (1994). Weekend warriors: The new men's movement. In H. Brod and M. Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 274-288). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

King, W. C., Jr., Miles, E. W., & Kniska, J. (1991). Boys will be boys (and girls will be girls): The attribution of gender role stereotypes in a gaming situation. Sex Roles, 25,607-623.

Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. (1987). Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and the implicit inversion theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11,83-96.

Kohlberg, L. A. (1966). A cognitive-development analysis of children's sex-role concepts and attitudes. In E. E. Maccoby (Ed.), The development of sex differences (pp. 82-172). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Konrad, A. M., & Cannings, K. (1993, May). Climbing the management hierarchy: Does family really have more impact on women ? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Academy of Management, Providence, Rl.

Konrad, A. M., & Cannings, K.(1994). Of mommy tracks and glass ceilings: A case study of men's and women's careers in management. Relations industrielles, 49,303-334.

Konrad, A. M., & Pfeffer, J. (1991). Understanding the hiring of women and minorities in educational institutions. Sociology of Education, 64,141-157.

Kopper, B. A., & Epperson, D. L. (1991). Women and anger: Sex and sex-role comparisons in the expression of anger. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 7-14.

Kottke, J. L. (1988). Can androgyny be assessed with a single scale? Psychological Reports, 63,987-991.

Krause, N.(1983). Conflicting sex-role expectations, housework dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms among full-time housewives. Sex Roles, 9,1115-1125.

Kuhn, D., Nash, S., & Brucken, L. (1978). Sex role concepts of two- and three-year-olds. Child Development, 49,445-451.

Kupers, T. A. (1993). Revisioning men's lives: Gender, intimacy, and power. New York: Guilford Press.

Kushell, E., & Newton, R. (1986). Gender, leadership style, and subordinate satisfaction: An experiment. Sex Roles, 14,203-209.

LaCroix, A. Z., & Haynes, S. G. (1987). Gender differences in the health effects of workplace roles. In R. C. Bamett, L. Biener, & G. K. Baruch (Eds.), Gender and stress (pp. 96-121).

LaFromboise, T. D., Heyle, A. M., & Ozer, E. J. (1990). Changing and diverse roles of women in American Indian cultures. Sex Roles, 22,455-486.

Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Bjorkqvist, K., & Peltonen, T. (1988). Is indirect aggression typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11- to 12-year-old children. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 403-414.

Lamb, M. E. (1981). Father and child development: An integrative overview. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (pp. 1-70). New York: Wiley.

Lamb, M. E., Frodi, A. M., Hwang, C. P., Frodi, M., & Steinberg, J. (1982). Mother-and father-infant interaction involving play and holding in traditional and nontraditional Swedish families. Developmental Psychology, 18, 215-221.

Langlois, J. H., & Downs, А. С. (1980). Mothers, fathers, and peers and socialization agents of sex-typed play behaviors in young children. Child Development, 51,1237-1247.

Lapiere, R. T. (1934). Attitudes vs. action. Social Forces, 13, 230-237.

Larwood, L, Szwajkowski, E., & Rose, S. (1988). Sex and race discrimination resulting from manager-client relationships: Applying the rational bias theory of managerial discrimination. Sex Roles, 18,9-29.

Latane, B. (1981). The psychology of social impact. American Psychologist, 36,343-356.

Lavine, L. O., & Lombardo, J. P. (1984). Self-disclosure: Intimate arid nonintimate disclosures to parents and best friends as a function of Bem sex-role category. Sex Roles, 11,760-768.

Lawrence, F., Draughn, P., Tasker, G., & Wozniak, P.(1987). Sex differences in household labor time: A comparison of rural and urban couples. Sex Roles, 17, 489-601.

Lebra, T. S. (1984). Japanese women: Constraint and fulfillment. Honolulu: University of Hawaii.

Leinbach, M. D., & Fagot, B. I. (1986). Acquisition of gender labels: A test for toddlers. Sex Roles, 15, 655-666.

Lemkau, J. P., & Landau, C. (1986). The 'selfless syndrome': Assessment and treatment considerations. Psychotherapy, 23,227-233.

Lerner, M. J. (1980). The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum Press.

Liben, L. S., & Signorella, M. L. (1980). Gender-related schemata and constructive memory in children. Child Development, 51,563-574.

Linn, M. C.(1985). Gender equity in computer learning environments. Computers and the Social Sciences, 1,19-27.

Linn, M. C. (1986). Meta-analysis of studies of gender differences: Implications and future directions. In J. S. Hyde & M. C. Linn (Eds.), The



©2015- 2019 stydopedia.ru Все материалы защищены законодательством РФ.