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КРАЕВОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

СРЕДНЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МИНУСИНСКИЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ ТЕХНИКУМ»

 

 

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей

 

МИНУСИНСК, 2010

 

КРАЕВОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

СРЕДНЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«МИНУСИНСКИЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ ТЕХНИКУМ»

 

 

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей

 

МИНУСИНСК, 2010

Англ.я 723

С 23

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей/Сост.: Краськова И.Р./2010.- 68с.

 

В сборнике собраны и систематизированы тексты для чтения по английскомк языку имеющие медицинскую направленность. Все тексты аутентичны, содержат дополнительные упражнения для развития основных видов речевой деятельности: чтения, письма, говорения.

Сборник предназначен для преподавателей и студентов медицинских специальностей.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words and word combinations:

 

1. skeletalскелетный

2. muscularмышечный

3. digestive пищеварительный

4. respiratory дыхательный

5. urinaryмочевой

6. endocrineэндокринный

7. reproductive репродуктивный, половой

8. bone кость

9. ligamentсвязка

10.cartilage хрящ

11.joinсоединять

12.structural структурный

13.spinalспинной, позвоночный

14.cordстолб

15.vessel сосуд

16.pumpнасос

17.streamток, поток

18.alimentaryпищеварительный

19.glandжелеза

20.conveyпередавать, переносить

21. carbon dioxide двуокись углерода

22. kidneyпочка

23.urineмоча

24.ureterмочеточник

25.urinary bladder мочевой пузырь

26.to be stored сохраняться, храниться, скапливаться

27.discharge удалять, выводить из организма

28.hormone гормон

6

SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

There are several main systems of the body: the skeletal, the muscular, the nervous, the digestive, the respiratory, the urinary, the endocrine and the reproductive systems.

The skeletal system consists of the bones of the body and ligaments and cartilages, which join them. The chief function of the skeletal system is structural.



The muscular system consists of the skeletal muscles and their associated structures. The main function of this system is to move us about.

The nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia and receptors. It is a complex information system with all the necessary means for receiving, processing and communicating information.

The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels and the blood, which is pumped through the blood vessels by the heart. Its function is mainly that of transportation system: the nutrients, oxygen, special substances which are required by cells are carried by the blood stream; and the cellular wastes and sometimes other materials produced by the cells are carried away by the blood stream.

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and a number of associated glands.

The respiratory system consists of the lungs, the air passages leading to them and associated structures. Its main function is to convey oxygen to the lungs, where it can enter the blood stream and to remove carbon dioxide, which escapes from the blood into the lung spaces.

The urinary system consists of the kidneys which produce urine by removing nitrogenous and other wastes from the blood: the two ureters, which convey the urine away from the kidneys; the urinary bladder, where the urine is stored until it is discharged; and the urethra through which the urine is discharged.

 

 

The endocrine system consists of a number of glands throughout the body, which produce regulatory substances called hormones. The endocrine system serves to regulate a large number of activities

NOTES

 

1. To move us about – осуществлять наше движение

2. For receiving, processing and communicating information – для

получения обработки и передачи информации

3. Which are required by cells – которые необходимы клеткам

4 .by removing nitrogenous and other wastes – путем выведения

азотосодержащих и других продуктов отхода

5 where urine is stored – где накапливается моча

 

EXERCISES

 

EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

1.которые их соединяют

2.основная функция

3.со всеми необходимыми средствами

4.несколько основных систем

5.переносится кровотоком

6.ведущих к ним воздухоносных путей

7.где он поступает в кровоток

8.выводить мочу из почек

9.до тех пор, пока она не выведена

10.вырабатываются вещества – регуляторы

 

EXERCISE 2. Найдите в тексте предложения, которые содержат следующие слова и словосочетания:

1.main systems of the body

2.the skeletal system

3.to move about

4.a complex information system

5.to be pumped through the blood vessels

6.transportation system

7.a number of associated glands

8.to convey oxigen

9.until it is discharged

10.a large number of activities

 

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1.What are the functions of the skeletal and muscular system?

2.What is carried by the blood stream?

3.What is the chief function of the blood?

4.What does the nervous system consist of?

5.What is the main function of the respiratory system?

6.What does the urinary system consist of?

7.How do the kidneys produce urine?

8.How is the urine discharged from the body?

 

EXERCISE 4. Составьте предложения из разбросанных слов:

1.The, system, begins, digestive, mouth, the, with.

2.Function, to remove, major, the, of, urinary, the, system, urine, is.

3.Is, the, system, of, complex, one, the, nervous, most, systems, all, of, body, human

4.Lymph, are, blood, and, the, tissues, body, of, liquid, the.

5.Includes, muscles, the, and, musculoskeletal, system, bones, joints.

 

EXERCISE 5.Вставьте пропущенные слова:

 

1.Another important function of the kidney is to maintain the balance of water, salt and acid in the body fluids.

2.The brain is the center for regulating and coordinating body activities.

3.Respiration is the process of breathing.

 

4.The blood and lymphatic systems have many .

5.Joints are the places where come together.

6.The endocrine system is composed of located in different regions of the body.

 

EXERCISE 6. Вставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. … main systems of body have groups of organs working together to perform complex functions.

2. … mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines are organs which compose digestive system.

3.There are some organs within each system.

4. … circulatory system is also called cardiovascular system.

5.The main function of respiratory system is to convey oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide

 

EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

1.Организм человека насчитывает несколько систем. Это группы органов, совместно функционирующие для выполнения сложных функций организма человека.

2.Пищеварительная система начинается в полости рта.

3.Нервная система – это самая сложная информационная система.

4.Главная функция мышечной системы – это осуществление движения.

5.Суставы – это места соединения костей.

6.Эндокринная система состоит из желез, расположенных в различных частях организма человека.

7.Скелетная система состоит из костей, а также связок и хрящей, соединяющих их.

8.Сердечно – сосудистая система выполняет транспортную функцию в организме

 

EXERCISE 8. Перескажите текст, пользуясь планом на с.65.

 

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

 

Read and learn the following words and word combinations:

  1. immunity иммунитет
  2. resistance сопротивляемость
  3. provideобеспечивать
  4. antibody антитело
  5. antitoxinантитоксин
  6. causative причинный
  7. stimulate стимулировать
  8. foreign bodyчужеродное тело
  9. transplantтрансплантант
  10. transfusionпереливание (крови)
  11. incompatible несоответствующий, несовместимый
  12. antigenантиген
  13. involve вовлекать
  14. overcomeподавлять
  15. concernedимеющий отношение, связанный
  16. remainоставаться
  17. acquired immunity приобретенный иммунитет
  18. reproduce воспроизводить
  19. artificially искусственно
  20. vaccinationвакцинация
  21. hostхозяин
  22. thusтаким образом
  23. subsequentпоследующий
  24. immediatelyсразу же
  25. exposureпроявление
  26. inheritнаследовать

 

 

IMMUNITY

Immunity means resistance to disease. It is provided by certain white blood cells, which release antibodies and antitoxins into the blood plasma. Many causative factors can stimulate white cells to produce antibodies antitoxins; for example, microorganisms; bacterial, plant and animals toxins; foreign bodies; transplants; transfusion of incompatible blood cells. All such factors are called antigens.

When infection occurs, inflammation results, and part of this defensive reaction involves antibodies and antitoxins. They are present in the blood and help overcome the microorganisms concerned. Some of these antibodies and antitoxins can remain in the blood for life and prevent any repetition of the same infection. Such life-long protection is called acquired immunity; but unfortunately it does not occur for every type of microorganism.

However, where immunity is possible it can be reproduced artificially in people who have never been infected by a particular microorganism. It may be done by giving a non-immune person a dose of dead microorganisms. This is called vaccination. Dead microorganisms cannot produce disease but they do stimulate the host’s body to produce antibodies and antitoxins against the particular microorganisms concerned. Thus any subsequent infection with these organisms is immediately overcome by the antibodies and antitoxins already present. If there has been no vaccination or prior exposure to disease, acquired immunity is not present. However, all individuals inherit some degree of natural immunity and this helps explain why some people are more resistant to disease than others.

NOTES

1. inflammation results – наступает воспаление

2. such life – long protection – Такая защита, имеющая место на протяжении всей жизни

3. dead microorganisms – ослабленные микроорганизмы

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

 

1.Невосприимчивость к заболеванию

2.Вырабатывать антитела

3.Все факторы

4.Они присутствуют в крови

5.Предупреждать повторное инфицирование

6.Приобретенный иммунитет

7.искусственно

8.Вакцинация

9.Они действительно стимулируют

10.Таким образом

11.Наследовать

12.Врожденный иммунитет

13.Это помогает объяснить

 

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

1.to be provided

2.Causative factors

3.Antigents

4.to involve

5.to help overcome

6.to remain for life

7.to occur

8.to be reproduced artificially

9.a non- immune person

10.dead microorgamisms

11.a subsequent infection

12.prior exposure

13.more resistant to disease

 

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1.What is immunity?

2.What is it provided by?

3.What factors can stimulate white cells to produce antibodies and antitoxins?

4.What happens when infection occurs?

5.How long can antibodies and antitoxins remain in the blood?

6.Does acquired immunity occur for every type of microorganism?

7.Can it be reproduced artificially?

8.How may it be done?

9.What do dead microorganisms stimulate?

10.Is acquired immunity always present?

11.What is natural immunity?

 

EXERCISE 4. Поставьте артикли, где это необходимо:

Where immunity to particular disease is not present, it can be provided by vaccination to prevent that disease; but it can also be introduced by injecting antibodies or antitoxins to treat or temporarily prevent disease concerned. Such protection is called passive immunity and is commonly used against tetanus. During pregnancy mother passes on her own antibodies and antitoxins to her unborn baby and this provides passive immunity for first few months after birth.

 

EXERCISE 5. Поставьте предлоги, где это необходимо:

Some people have a defective immune system and are accordingly much more susceptible infection. Such individuals are said to be immune – compromised and one the most important examples is the destruction the body’s defense mechanism by the AIDS virus, resulting death from an inability to resist infection.

Other immune – compromised patients may be those suffering leukemia, kidney failure and diabetes; and those taking drugs which suppress immunity; for example, cytotoxics, used the treatment of cancer, and drugs used to prevent rejection transplants.

 

EXERCISE 6. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

 

1.Is, immunity, by, provided, cells, white.

2.Can, many, factors, white, stimulate, to produce, cells, antibodies, antitoxins, and.

3.Antibodies, antitoxins, and, some, remain, of, for, can, in, remain, the, for, blood, life.

4.Inherit, natural, individuals, all, degree, immunity, some, of.

EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский язык:

 

1.Иммунитет – это невосприимчивость к заболеванию.

2.В теле человека лейкоциты выполняют функцию пожирателей болезнетворных бактерий.

3.Воспаление – это защитная реакция организма в борьбе с болезнью.

4.Существуют два вида иммунитета: врожденный и приобретенный.

5.И.И.Мечников первым открыл явление иммунитета и назвал свою теорию фагоцитарной теорией иммунитета.

6.Английский врач Эдвард Дженнер открыл способ искусственно создавать иммунитет к опасной болезни – натуральной оспе.

7.Ослабленные микроорганизмы не могут вызвать заболевание, но они стимулируют выработку организмом антител и антитоксинов против микроорганизмов, вызывающих данное заболевание.

EXERCISE 8. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Immunity”.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 9 Приготовьте пересказ текста “Immunity”.

TEXT B

 

If an infection is too virulent, or the body resistance too weak, the white cells are unable to contain the infection and it can spread throughout the body. Before the discovery of antibiotics, such spread was usually fatal. If the balance between infection and body resistance us equal, a condition of stalemate may supervene, often leading to a persistent state of chronic infection.

During the battle between invading bacteria and white cells in the inflamed area, many casualties occur. These dead white cells and bacteria form the creamy liquid known as pus. A localized collection of pus is called an abscess. Abscess of the skin are called boils. Sometimes pus formation spreads diffusely instead of forming an abscess. This is called cellulites.

In the absence of infection, pus formation does not occur and any damage done by the causal irritant is repaired.

Following inflammation the damage is repaired by white cells which rebuild the area by filling the breach with a temporary repair tissue called granulation tissue. This consists of rapidly growing white cells and new capillaries which form fibrous scaffolding in which damaged parts are removed and reconstruction take place. But repair cannot take place in the presence of pus.

 

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words

 

1. contain содержать

2. plasmaплазма

3. microscopicalмикроскопический

4. elementэлемент

5. erythrocyte эритроцит

6. leucocyteлейкоцит

7. thrombocyte тромбоцит

8. bone marrow костный мозг

9. transportтранспортировать, переносить

10. convertпреобразовывать,превращать

11. carryпереносить

12. arriveприбывать

13. expelвытеснять, выводить

14. catabolism катаболизм

15. hemoglobin (haemoglobin) гемоглобин

16. agranulocyteагранулоцит

17. cytoplasmцитоплазма

18. granulocyteгранулоцит

19. eosinophilиозофил

20. basophilбазофил

21. neutrophilнейтрофил

22. node узел

23. spleenселезенка

24. lymphocyteлимфоцит

25. monocyte моноцит

26. plateletтромбоцит

27. tinyкрошечный

28. blood clotting свертываемость крови

29. occurпроисходить, случаться

30. remainоставаться

31. coagulation коагуляция

32. complete заканчивать

BLOOD

Blood contains a fluid called plasma plus microscopical cellular elements: erythrocytes, leucocytes, and thrombocytes.

Erythrocytes are red blood cells of which 4.5 – 5 million are found in each cubic millimeter. These cells are made in the bone marrow and are important in transporting oxygen from the lungs through the blood stream to the cells all over the body. The oxygen is then used up by body cells in the process of converting food to energy (catabolism). Hemoglobin, containing iron, is an important protein in erythrocytes, which helps in carrying the oxygen as it travels through the blood stream. Erythrocytes also carry away carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of catabolism of food in cells, from the body cells to the lungs. On arriving there it is expelled in the process of breathing.

Leucocytes are white blood cells from 4.000 to 10.000 per cubic millimeter exiting in several types: granulocytes and agranulocytes, which are also subdivided into different types.

Granulocytes are cells with granules in their cytoplasm formed in the bone marrow. There are three types of granulocytes: eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils.

Agranulocytes are produced in lymph nodes and spleen. There are two types of agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes.

Thrombocytes or platelets are tiny cells formed in the bone marrow. They are necessary for blood clotting. Their number is 400.000 per cubic millimeter. The plasma is the fluid portion before clotting has occurred. The serum is the fluid portion of blood remaining after the coagulation process is completed.

The body contains about five liters of blood kept at a constant temperature of 37*C. Blood consists of three different types of cell floating in a liquid called plasma. The blood cells are known as red cells, white cells and platelets. Red cells and platelets are unique among body cells in having no nucleus. Blood cells are so small that one cubic

 

millimeter of blood (the size of a pin head) contains about five million red cells, 7.000 white cells and 250.000 platelets.

The red blood cells contain a pigment called hemoglobin, which gives the blood its red color. The main function of red cells is to carry oxygen to the body cells.

For its journey from the lungs to the body cells, oxygen combines with hemoglobin of the red cells. It is then released from the hemoglobin when the body cells are reached. Some people do not have enough hemoglobin in their red cells and are consequently short of oxygen. This condition is called anemia and such people tire easily, become breathless on exertion and have a pale complexion. They need special care during general anesthesia.

The white blood cells defend the body against disease. They do this by attacking germs and repairing damage.

The function of platelets is to stop bleeding. They do this in two ways: by blocking the cut blood vessels; and by producing substances, which help the blood to clot.

 

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1 Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

1.микроскопические клеточные элементы

2.в каждом кубическом миллиметре

3.через кровоток

4.по всему организму

5.процесс превращения пищи в энергию

6.выводить

7.продукт отхода

8.выталкивать, выбрасывать

9.несколько видов

10.лимфатические узлы

11.крошечные клетки

12.свертываемость крови

13.завершаться

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями из текста:

1.to call

2.to be found

3.bone marrow

4.to be used

5.to convert

6.iron

7.to be expelled

8.spleen

9.a fluid portion

10.coagulation process

EXERCISE 3 Переведите следующие словосочетания:

1.the habit of smocking

2.the way of producing it

3.the hope of seeing you

4.the chance of getting the prize

5.the method of transporting

6.the necessity of knowing

7.the importance of carrying away waste products

8.the time of arriving

9.the fact of existing

 

EXERCISE4. Составьте предложения, используя следующие модели, переведите на русский язык:

 

MODEL: You can learn English.(to work hard)

You can learn English by working hard.

 

1. You can improve your health (to walk in the evening, to have a proper diet, to follow your doctor’s advice).

2. You will help me (to take part in the conference, to deliver a lecture on Monday, to organize a seminar).

3. You can keep up your English (to read books in the original, to learn grammar, to work with a tape- recorder).

 

EXERCISE 5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1.What does blood contain?

2.How many erythrocytes can be found in each cubic millimeter/

3.Where are these cells made?

4.What is their function?

5.What role does hemoglobin play?

6.What are the types of leucocytes?

7.7.Where are agranulocytes produced?

8.8.What types of granulocytes do you know?

9.9.What organ forms thrombocytes?

10.How many platelets are there in one cubic millimeter?

11.11.What is the difference between the plasma and serum?

EXERCISE 6. Вставьте артикли, где это необходимо:

 

1. Blood contains … fluid called plasma and cellular elements.

2. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are important in … gas exchange taking place in … lungs.

3. Leucocytes (white blood cells) are subdivided into … different types.

4. Granulocytes are formed in … bone marrow.

5. Agranulocytes are produced in … lymph nodes and … spleen.

6. Platelets are … tiny cells formed in the bone remaining after … coagulation process is the serum.

EXERCISE7. Вставьте предлоги или наречия:

1.Thrombocytes are necessary … blood clotting.

2.The plasma is the fluid portion … clotting has occurred.

3.There are two types … agranulocytes.

4.21

5.Granulocytes are cells … granules in their cytoplasm.

6.The number of leucocytes is … 4.000 … 10.000 per cubic millimeter.

7.The oxygen is used … body cells in the process …converting food … energy.

8.Carbon dioxide is expelled … the process … breathing.

9.Erythrocytes transport oxygen … the lungs … the blood stream … the cells of the body.

10.They also carry … a waste product … catabolism.

 

EXERCISE8. Закончите предложение, используя окончание ing. Слова изправой колонки вам помогут:

 

1.Do you mind my… to ask you

2.I insist on … to do it now, not tomorrow

3.The lecturer began … to speak on gas exchange in the lungs

4.It’s no use … to try it again

5.He stopped … to do laboratory experiments on blood

6.Most of us dislike the idea of … to be examined

7.We had no difficulty in … to learn the blood formula

8.Please go on … to speak on the topic

9.I can not help … to visit my sister, who is ill

10.The students made much progress to learn this material in Physiology by…

EXERCISE 9. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Blood”.

EXERCISE 10. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Blood”.

 

 

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read learn the following words and word combinations:

1. meanозначать

2. invasion инвазия, вторжение

3. salivaслюна

4. contaminated зараженный

5. skin cuts порезы

6. abrasionабразия

7. staffперсонал

8. defenceоборона

9. intactнеповрежденный

10. surfaceповерхность

11. liquidжидкость

12. produce производить

13. poisonяд

14. killубивать

15. tearsслезы

16. sweatпот

17. similarподобный, схожий

INFECTION

Infection means invasion of the body by microorganisms, which are harmful. The most common sources of infection in medical practice are direct contact with a patient’s blood and saliva, consequently instruments and equipment used in the treatment become contaminated. If no action were taken infection may enter the body through skin cuts or abrasions or the eyes, it may also be swallowed. Infection from the contamination would be passed on from patient to patient, from patient to staff and from staff to patient. This involvement is called cross – infection.

Even ancient people taught that body’s first of defense against infection was an intact surface, e.g. the outer layer of skin and the protective outer layer of

mucous membrane. If infection had passed it the second line of defense started its action. It was the liquid secretion produced by the protective surfaces. The mucous membrane and the salivary glands had produced saliva, which neutralized some bacterial poisons and could kill some microorganisms. Tears and sweat had a similar effect. The acidity of gastric juice killed many bacteria in food. The third line of defense is discovered now. It is immunity.

And we also know that if these defense mechanisms fail to prevent infection, the last line of defense is a response by the body called inflammation.

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

1.Означать

2.Кровь и слюна пациента

3.Через порезы на коже

4.Глотать

5.Наружный слой слизистой оболочки

6.Продуцируемая защитной поверхностью

7.Яды, вырабатываемые бактериями

8.Желудочный сок

9.Пища

10.Ответная реакция

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

1.Direct

2.Abrasion

3.To teach

4.To start

5.To produce

6.To kill

7.To discover

8.Mechanism

9.Effect

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1.What are the most common sources of infection?

2.How may infection enter the body?

3.What did ancient people teach?

4.When does the second line of defense start its action?

5.What is it produced by?

6.What can saliva do?

7.What effect do tears and sweat have?

8.When was the third line discovered?

9.What is the last line of defense?

 

EXERCISE4. Измените предложения в прошедшее совершенное время:

MODEL: They have finished the work (by 5 o’clock yesterday).

They had finished the work by 5 o’clock yesterday.

 

1.My friend has prepared the report (by last Monday).

2.The students have done the exercises (by the end of the lesson).

3.Mother has cooked supper (by the time I came home).

4.We have not seen our teacher (before the bell rang).

5.Have you done the work (before I called you up)?

6.He has translated the article (by this time yesterday).

7.She has not bought a present for him (when we came to her place).

 

EXERCISE 5. Составьте 12 вопросов к тексту “Infection”.

EXERCISE 6. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Infection.

 

 

TEXT B

 

In order to prevent cross – infection it is essential to kill all the microorganisms on infected instruments. This process is known as sterilization and means the killing of all microorganisms: bacteria, spores, fungi, and viruses. It is carried out immediately after completion of treatment so that all instruments are sterile again before use on the next patient.

Countless number of microorganisms lives on the skin and in the mouth, nose and throat. Normally they do no harm to their host as they living on an external surface and not among delicate internal cells. However, they may become harmful if they are introduced inside the body tissues, or are transferred from one person to another. This can occur when the tissues penetrated by contaminated forceps blade, scalper or syringe needle, and may give rise to harmful reaction. After each patient has left the surgery, it is the nurse`s duty to see that all instruments are properly sterilized before being used again for another patient.

As already mentioned, sterilization means killing not only bacteria and fungi, but all other microorganisms, including viruses and bacterial spores. Any method which kills bacteria and fungi but allows some spores or viruses to survive cannot be sterilization. The term used for this restricted range of action is disinfection.

 

 

 

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words:

1. crown коронка

2. neckшейка

3. rootкорень

4. visible видимый

5. hiddenспрятанный

6. junction место соединения

7. to be called называться

8. coverпокрывать

9. hardтвердый

10. sensitive чувствительный

11. unlikeв отличие от

12. purely чисто

13. insert вставлять

14. alveolarальвеолярный

15. gum десна

STRUCTURE OF TEETH

 

Every tooth consists of a crown, a neck and one or more roots. The crown is the part visible in the mouth and the root is the part hidden inside the jaw. The junction of crown and root is called the neck and end of the root is called the apex. Every tooth is composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp.

Enamel is the outer covering of the crown and is the hardest substance in the body.

Cementum is the outer covering of the root and is similar in structure to bone. Cementum meets enamel at the neck of the tooth.

Dentine occupies the interior of the crown and root, and is very sensitive to pain.

Pulp. Unlike enamel, dentine and cementum, the pulp is purely soft tissue. It contains blood vessels and nerves, and occupies the centre of the dentine.

Supporting Structures. Every tooth is insert into the jaw by its root. The part of the jaw containing the teeth is known as the alveolar process and is covered with a soft tissue called gum. The jaw bones consist of a dense outer layer known as compact bone and a softer interior called spongy bone.

A tooth is attached to its socket in the jaw by a soft fibrous tissue called the periodontal membrane.

NOTES

1. Alveolar process – альвеолярный отросток

2. Compact bone – компактное вещество

3. Spongy bone – губчатое вещество

 

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1 Найдите в тексте эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний:

 

1.Состоять из

2.Быть скрытым

3.Называться

4.Быть нечувствительным к боли

5.Содержит кровеносные сосуды и нервные окончания

6.Быть покрытым чем – либо

7.Наружный слой

8.Мягкая фиброзная ткань

EXERCISE 2 Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

1.Visible

2.The function

3.To be composed of

4.The hardest substance in the body

5.Very sensitive to pain

6.Soft tissue

7.Alveolar process

8.To be attached

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1.What does a tooth consist of?

2.How is the junction of crown and root called?

3.What is every tooth composed of?

4.What do you know about enamel?

5.Where does cementum meet enamel?

6.What is cementum?

7.Is dentine sensitive to pain?

8.What does pulp contain?

9.What supporting structures can you name?

EXERCISE 4 Вставьте артикли, где это необходимо:

1.… tooth consists of a crown and one or more roots. … crown is …visible part, … root is … hidden part.

2.… tooth is composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp.

3.Enamel is … hardest substance in the body.

4.Cementum is … outer covering of …root.

5.Dentine occupies … interior of the crown and root.

6.… vessels and … nerves of the pulp enter … root apex through the apical foramen.

7.… space occupied by the pulp is called … pulp chamber.

8.29

9.Every tooth is inserted into … jaw by its roots.

10.… part of the jaw containing the teeth is known as the alveolar process.

11.It is covered with … soft tissue called gum.

12.… tooth is attached to its socket in the jaw by … soft tissue called the periodontal membrane.

 

EXERCISE 5. Вставьте предлоги или наречия:

 

1.Every tooth consists…a crown and one or more roots.

2.It is insensitive … pain.

3.Any damage caused … decay or injury is permanent.

4.Cementum is similar … structure to bone.

5.Dentine occupies the interior … the crown and root.

6.Vessels and nerves of the pulp pass … the root canal … the crown dentine.

7.A tooth is inserted … the jaw … its root.

8.Any tooth is attached … its socket … the jaw … a soft fibrous tissue called the periodontal membrane.

 

EXERCISE 6. Задайте вопросы к выделенным словам в ответах:

 

1. The root is the part hidden inside the jaw.

2.The microscope shows that it consists of long solid rods.

3.Cementum is similar in structure to bone.

4.Cementum meets enamel at the neck of the tooth.

5.Dentine is very sensitive to pain.

6.The pulp is purely soft tissue.

7.The alveolar process is covered with gum.

8.Periodontal membrane acts as a shock absorber.

 

EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский следующие предложения:

1.Коронка, шейка и корни составляют зуб.

2.Место перехода коронки в корень называется шейкой.

3.Эмаль – самая твердая часть человеческого тела.

4.Цемент соединяется с эмалью у шейки зуба.

5.Дентин очень чувствителен к боли.

6.В отличие от других структур зуба, пульпа – это рыхлая ткань.

7.Зуб удерживается в десне корнем и периодонтом.

8.Альвеолярный отросток покрыт мягкой тканью, называемой десна.

9.Периодонтальная мембрана действует как амортизатор.

 

EXERCISE 8. Задайте 10 вопросов к тексту « Structure of teeth».

EXERCISE9. Приготовьте пересказ текста « Structure of teeth».

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words:

1. pathology патология

2. change изменение

3. shallow неглубокий

4. breachнарушение

5. mucousслизистый

6. membrane мембрана, оболочка

7. ulcer язва

8. rawссадина

9. bleeding кровоточащий

10. cyst киста

11. sac мешочек

12. localized локализованный

13. tumor опухоль

14. growth рост

15. destruction разрушение

16. adjacentприлегающий

17. spreadраспространяться

18. severe сильный, тяжелый (о болезни)

19. fatalфатальный

20. cancer рак

21. congenital врожденный

22. cleft palate волчья пасть

23. X – ray рентген

24. determine определять

25. confirmation подтверждение

26. removalудаление

27. minorмалый

28. biopsyбиопсия

29. specimenобразец

30. swabмазок

31. smearмазок

PATHOLOGY

Pathology is the study of disease. It covers the changes in normal anatomy and physiology brought about by disease and the body’s reaction to it.

Any shallow breach of the skin or mucous membrane is called an ulcer. The raw base of an ulcer often has a painful bleeding surface. A cyst is an abnormal sac of fluid. Cysts are usually small and localized and can occur in soft tissues or bone anywhere in the body.

A tumor is a swelling caused by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of body cells. It serves no useful purpose and may cause displacement or destruction of adjacent structures. Some types of tumor can spread throughout the body causing severe, and often fatal, destructive effects. This condition is commonly known as cancer.

Congenital defects are defects, which are present at birth, such as heart and valvular defects, cleft palate or other deformities.

The cause or nature of an ulcer or tumor cannot always be determined by physical or X – ray examination. Confirmation of the diagnosis often necessitates surgical removal of some diseased tissue for examination under a microscope. This minor operation is called a biopsy. The biopsy specimen is sent to a hospital pathology department.

The diagnosis of infections often requires bacteriological examination of a swab or smear from an infected surface. Other types of disease are commonly diagnosed by blood and urine tests.

 

 

NOTES

1. brought about – вызванные

2. It serves no useful purpose – Она (опухоль) не несет ничего хорошего.

3. commonly known – широко известно.

4. often necessitates – часто несет за собой.

 

EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

1.Изучение заболевания

2.Реакция организма

3.Слизистая оболочка

4.Болезненная кровоточащая поверхность

5.Локализованный

6.Неконтролируемый рост клеток

7.Близлежащие структуры

8.Значительные и часто фатальные разрешающие воздействия

9.Врожденные отклонения

10.При рождении

11.Рентгенологическое исследование

12.Хирургическое удаление

13.Под микроскопом

14.Анализы крови и мочи.

 

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте следующие предложения из текста:

1.Pathology

2.To cover the changes

3.Shallow breach of the skin

4.The raw base

5.An abdominal sac of fluid

6.To occur

7.A swelling

8.Displacement and destruction

9.Throughout the body

10.Cancer

11.Deformity

12.The cause of an ulcer

13.Diseased tissue

14.Minor operation

15.The biopsy specimen

16.To be diagnosed

 

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1.What is pathology?

2.What does it cover?

3.Is any shallow breach of the skin of mucous membrane called an ulcer or a cyst?

4.What is a cyst?

5.When can cyst occur?

6.What is a tumor?

7.What may it cause?

8.What condition is called cancer?

9.When are congenital defects already present?

10.Can the cause of an ulcer or tumor be determined by only physical examination?

11.What is called a biopsy?

12.How are other types of disease commonly diagnosed?

EXERCISE 4. Закончите предложения:

1.Pathology covers .

2.An ulcer is .

3.Cysts can occur .

4.A tumor is .

5.A cancer is a condition when .

6.Congenital defects can be .

7. The diagnosis of infections often requires .

EXERCISE 5 .Составьте предложения из разбросанных слов:

1.Base, the, an, of, raw, ulcer, surface, other, bleeding, a, has, painful.

2.Cause, may, tumor, structures, displacement, adjacent, or, of, destruction, a.

3.Pathology, the, specimen, department, biopsy, is to, a, sent, hospital.

4.Many, disease, types, are, of, commonly, by, diagnosed, blood, urine, and, tests.

EXERCISE 6. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1.Патология рассматривает отклонения, проявляющиеся в нормальной физиологии и анатомии.

2.Язва часто имеет болезненную кровоточащую поверхность .

3.Кисты обычно небольшие по размеру.

4.Опухоль может вызвать смещение или разрушение прилегающих к ней структур.

5.Врожденные дефекты часто видны уже при рождении ребенка.

6.Для определения вида опухоли, как правило, используется биопсия.

7.При постановке диагноза чаще всего необходимы анализы крови и мочи

 

EXERCISE 7. Диалог. Составьте по 5 вопросительных предложений по тексту “Pathology”.

 

EXERCISE 8. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Pathology”.

 

TEXT B

 

Sometimes a normal immune response does not occur. Instead, a violent reaction called allergy is produced. This can cause sudden death but usually involves

consequences of varying degrees of seriousness, ranging from skin rashes or mouth ulcers to partial obstruction of the airway. Sensitivity to certain types of pollen, food, stings, latex products and drugs can produce an allergic reaction.

A much more serious type of allergy which could be happen in practice is that affecting patients sensitive to penicillin and its derivatives. If one these drugs were given to such patients, the above – mentioned reactions could occur – the worst effect of all being the rapid onset of a severe state of collapse which may be fatal. This is called anaphylactic shock. The patients most at risk of allergic responses are those with a history of asthma, eczema and hay fever.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words:

1. drugлекарство, наркотик

2. exclusively исключительно

3. prescribe предписывать

4. volume объем

5. reference book справочник

6. available доступный

7. precaution осторожность, противопоказание

8. data sheet вкладыш – инструкция

9. administerназначать, применять, давать (лекарство)

10. externally наружно

11. anestheticанестетик

12. abolish снимать, устранять

13. killубивать

14. deriveпроисходить от

15. derivatives производные

16. liableподверженный, склонный

17. beforehand заранее

18. orderзаказывать

 

DRUGS

The metric system is used exclusively when ordering and prescribing drugs. The metric unit of weight is the gram (g) and this is divided into thousandths called milligrams (mg).

The unit of volume is the liter (l) which is subdivided into thousandths called milliliters (ml). A liter is equivalent to just under two pints. The standard medicine teasp



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