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Which do you think contains more caffeine – coffee or tea?

Tobacco. Cigarettes, cigars and pipe tobacco all contain nicotine. The smoker may become dependent on this drug, and smokers find it very difficult to give up the habit.

Can you think of any health dangers associated with regular smoking?

Alcohol. In most homes you will find a cupboard containing some wine, beer or spirits. These drinks all contain alcohol, which can cause health and social problems for people who become dependent on it. Although most people enjoy drinking and drink sensibly, there are strict laws concerning drinking and driving and the age at which you can drink.

Can you think of any situations where heavy regular drinking may cause problems?

Solvents.Many household fluids such as glues and cleaning liquids contain volatilesubstances such as ether and alcohol. Some people use these liquids in the dangerous habit of sniffing.

Why do you think glue sniffing is most common among young people?

2. Прочтите текст во второй раз, переведите его и изложите основную мысль текста в

нескольких предложениях на английском языке.

 

3. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний и составьте свои

собственные предложения с ними:

 

- снижать боль; - вызывать проблемы со здоровьем;

- делать жизнь сносной; - стать зависимым от лекарства;

- извлекать большую пользу из ч.л.; - бросить привычку;

- в неправильном количестве; - быть распространенным среди молодежи.

- летучее вещество;

 

4. Задайте друг другу вопросы, выделенные жирным шрифтом, высказывая свою точку

зрения. Используйте следующие фразы:

 

I agree; I don`t agree with you; I think…; in my opinion; it depends on…; on the one hand; on the other hand.

 

5. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What are medicines used for?

2. How can we get a medicine?

3. Do any medicines contain drugs? In what case can they be dangerous?

4. What drinks contain a drug? What is it called?

 

6. Подготовьте по группам небольшое сообщение на английском языке (6-8

предложений) на следующие темы по содержанию текста:

 

1) Процедура выписывания лекарства;

2) Вредные привычки и их влияние на здоровье человека.

Unit 4

Administration of Drugs

Grammar:Participle II

1. а) Прочтите слова из Vocabulary List вслух.

б) Изучите список слов и укажите слова, называющие:

 

- способы введения лекарств.

 

Vocabulary List

the route of administration - способ введения (лекарства)

to absorb - всасываться

parenteral - парентеральный

to dissolve in saliva - растворяться в слюне

nausea - тошнота

rectal - ректальный

vomiting - рвота

to accomplish - достигать; завершать

location - местонахождение



a buttock - ягодица

to dissolve - растворять(ся)

topical - местный

surface - поверхность

sublingual - подъязычный

to accelerate - ускорить

to heal - заживать; заживлять

inhalation - ингаляция

moist - влажный

lotion - лосьон

oral - пероральный

subcutaneous - подкожный

 

2.Ответьте на вопросы, используя слова и словосочетания в скобках:

 

1. What do we call the route of administration when a medicine is taken by mouth? (oral)

2. In what case are suppositories used? (when oral route of administration presents

difficulties)

3. What is taken into the nose or mouth during inhalation? (vapors or gases)

3. Прочтите и переведите текст на русский язык.

Administration of Drugs.

 

The route of administration of a drug is very important in determining the rate and completeness of its absorption into the blood stream and speed and duration of the drug’s action in the body.

Oral Administration.

The route of administration is by mouth. Drugs given orally must pass into the stomach and be absorbed into the blood stream through the intestinal wall. This method may have several disadvantages. If the drug is destroyed in the digestive tract by the digestive juice or if the drug cannot pass through the intestinal wall or mucosa, it will be ineffective.

Sublingual Administration.

In this route of administration, drugs are not swallowed but are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve in the saliva. Absorption may be rapid for some agents. Nitroglycerine tablets are taken this way to treat attacks of chest pain.

Rectal Administration. Suppositories.

Sometimes, drugs are given by rectum when oral administration presents difficulties such as, when the patient is nauseating and vomiting.

Parenteral Administration.

This type of administration is accomplished by injection through a syringe under the skin, into a muscle, into a vein or into a body cavity. There are several types of parenteral injections:

- Subcutaneous injection. This injection is sometimes called hypodermic, and is given just under several layers of the skin. The outer surface of the arm and the anterior surface of the skin are usually locations for subcutaneous injections.

- Intradermal injection. This shallow injection is made into the upper layers of the skin. It is used in skin testing for allergic reactions.

- Intramuscular injection (I.M.). This injection is given into the muscle usually into the buttocks. When drugs are irritating the skin or a large volume of a long-acting drug is to be given, I.M. injections are advisable.

- Intravenous injection (I.V.). This injection is given directly into the veins. It is given when an immediate effect from the drug is desired or when the drug cannot be given into other tissues.

- Intrathecal injection is made in the case of anesthesia into the sheath of the spine marrow and the brain.

- Intracavitary injections are given into the body cavities: thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity and others.

Inhalation.

In this method of administration, vapours, or gases are taken into the nose or mouth and are absorbed into the blood stream through the thin walls of the air sacks in the lungs (alveoli).

Topical Application.

This is the local external application of drug on the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth or other surfaces. It is commonly used to accelerate the healing of abrasions, for antiseptic treatment of a wound, and as an antipruritic (against itching). Topical application may also include administration of drugs into the eyes, ears, nose and vagina. Lotions are used most often when the skin is moist, or “weeping”, and ointments and creams are used when the lesions are dry.

 

4. Закончите предложения, заменив русские слова в скобках их английскими

эквивалентами.

 

1. Vapours and gases are absorbed into (кровяное русло) through the thin walls of the air

sacks in the lungs.

2. Parenteral administration is accomplished by injection through (шприц) under the skin,

into a muscle, into a vein or into (полость тела).

3. (Внешняя поверхность) of the arm and the anterior surface of the skin are usually

(местоположение) for (подкожный) injections.

4. (Мази) are used most often when the skin is (влажный).

5. In (подъязычный) administration, drugs are not swallowed but are placed under the

tongue and allowed (растворять) in (слюна).

  1. It is commonly used (усиливать) the healing of (ссадина), for antiseptic treatmentof a

wound, and as (против зуда).

 

5. Закончите предложения, используя подходящие по смыслу слова, приведенные ниже.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Ointments are semi-solid preparations for … application.

2. There are two main … of drugs according to their …: for external and internal usage.

3. Various remedies are applied for total … .

4. Hormonal … are produced by the artificial way using synthetic components and also

from the organs and urea of animals.

5. Liquid medicines … for the people who will not or cannot … tablets.

6. Suppositories are very useful if a drug cannot be taken … .

7. Ointments and creams are used when … are dry.

 

Drugs, by mouth, application, lesions, anesthesia, are useful, groups, external, swallow.

 

6. Найдите в тексте “Administration of drugs” английские эквиваленты

следующих слов и словосочетаний. Составьте предложения с ними по содержанию

текста.

- лекарства, даваемые перорально; - непосредственно в вену;

- способ назначения лекарств; - немедленный эффект;

- абсорбироваться в кровяное русло; - внутриполостные инъекции;

- лекарство кладут под язык; - подоболочечные инъекции;

- ректальное применение; - пары и газы;

- пациента тошнит и рвёт; - антисептическое лечение ран;

- шприц; - мази;

- подкожные инъекции; - лосьон;

- большой объем сильнодействующего лекарства; - препараты против зуда.

- ягодица;

 

7. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

 

1. Медикаменты и лекарства доступны в различных формах.

2. Большинство людей смогут лечиться на дому.

3. Медсестра может ввести лекарство в полость тела, если необходимо.

4. Пилюли и капсулы принимают перорально.

5. Суппозитории вводят через прямую кишку.

6. Мази наносят непосредственно на кожу.

7. Ингаляции используют для лечения астмы и аллергий, таких как сенная лихорадка.

8. Все лекарства полностью приемлемы в нашем обществе.

9. Большое количество людей получают огромную пользу от лекарств.

10. Если другие виды терапии оказываются неэффективными, врач назначает инъекции.

 

8. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту “Administration of drugs”.

 

1. Why is the route of administration of drugs very important?

2. What is the route of oral administration?

3. Where are drugs placed in the route of sublingual administration?

4. When are drugs given by rectum?

5. How is parenteral administration accomplished?

6. What is the difference between subcutaneous and intradermal injections?

7. When is it advisable to inject some drugs into the buttocks?

8. When is an intravenous injection given?

9. When is an intrathecal injection made?

10. What is meant by inhalation?

11. What may topical application include?

 

9. Составьте устное сообщение (12-14 предложений) на английском языке, используя

текст “Administration of drugs”, по плану:

 

1) Importance of the route of administration of a drug;

2) Different routes of administration of a drug.

 

Активизация грамматики.

 

1. Закончите предложения, поставив глагол в скобках в форму Participle II. Переведите

предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Tablets are drugs (to give) by mouth.

2. Ointment is a substance (to make) of oil or fat (to apply) on the skin to heal wounds.

3. Suppositories are cone-shaped objects containing medications (to insert) into the rectum.

4. Vapours or gases (to take) into the nose or mouth are absorbed into the blood stream

through the walls of the air sacks in the lungs.

5. Vapours are particles of the drug (to suspend) in the air.

6. Injections (to use) in skin testing for allergic reactions are called intradermal injections.

 

2. Сравните выделенные формы глаголов и укажите разницу между ними. Переведите

предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Heinvestigated a few antibiotics as well.

2. This problem discussed, attractedmuch attention.

3. Early clinical studies showed an increasedamount of enzymes.

4. All other mice tested, producedantibodies.

5. The operated children were followed up to the age of 7 or 8.

6. Drugs are used to treat chronic conditions.

7. Ointments are prepared by two methods.

8.Based on their penetration, ointments have been divided into four classes.

9. One salt can be transformed into another by treating it with an acid.

 

3. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужную временную форму Past Simple или

Participle II. Назовите ее. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. This drug (to act) on the patient markedly and he (to recover) very quickly.

2. The overdosage of foxglove (to cause) heart trouble.

3. The patient (to show) the skin irritation (to cause) by the ointment.

4. The drug (to test) in our laboratories can be sold at the chemist’s.

5. As I (to be) in a hurry I (to buy) this medicine at the chemist’s (to locate) just round the corner.

6. This medicine (to administer) orally must be taken every other day.

7. Adverse effects often (to experience) by patients include headache, nausea, (to impair)

digestion, (to increase) fatigue, skin symptoms, etc.

 

4. Выберите подходящий по смыслу глагол из списка, приведенного ниже, поставьте его

в форму Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. This injection … into the upper layers of the skin was necessary to save the patient`s life.

2. The drug … in the digestive tract by the digestive juice is ineffective.

3. Some drugs … under the tongue are used to treat attack of chest pains.

4. If there is any serious change in the health condition … with the drug administration, it is

necessary to stop using the drug and to consult the physician.

5. This is a group of drugs ... for the same type of illness.

6. The majority of drugs should be stored at a temperature of up to 25°C, … against light and humidity.

7. In addition, drugs … by inhalation do not stay in the bloodstream for as long.

8. … with other routes of administration, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body.

 

To connect, to take, to make, to place, to use, to destroy, to compare, to protect.

 

5. Переведите предложения на английский язык, употребив Participle II.

 

1. Лекарство, введенное внутримышечно, действует моментально.

2. Один из наиболее известных способов введения лекарства – ингаляция.

3. Лекарства, наносимые на кожу - обычно для локального использования.

4. Эти лекарства, вводимые внутривенно, очень часто назначают в небольших дозах.

5. Эффект от лекарства, введенного внутримышечно, длится более короткое время.

6. Лекарства, назначаемые при лечении диабета, можно заказать только по рецепту.

 

Практикум

1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопрос: «What ways do medicines work?».

 

How do medicines work?

 

Replacing substances that are deficient or missing in the body.

The body needs certain levels of proteins (or …), vitamins and minerals in order to work normally. If these important substances are insufficient or lacking, this can lead to medical disorders. These are called ‘deficiency disorders’. Examples include: iron deficiency (…), and vitamin C deficiency (…).

Deficiency disorders can also occur as a result of lack of hormones in the body (...). Common examples include: diabetes (…) and hypothyroidism (…). Deficiency disorders can be treated with medicines or hormones that replace or restore the levels of the missing substances, for example insulin injections for diabetics.

Altering the activity of cells.

Cells are the basic ‘building blocks’ of the body. All human tissues are made up of groups of cells. Many medicines work by altering the activity of cells. For example, anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen and diclofenac block the action or stop the production of chemical substances (…) which are released by cells in response to tissue damage and which cause inflammation and pain. Medicines which interfere with the way of cells’ work are used to treat a variety of conditions, such as blood clotting disorders (e.g. …), heart (e.g. … ) and kidney diseases. Some medicines work by attaching themselves (binding) to the sites found on the surface of the cells (…) and either increase or decrease the activity of the cell (e.g. ...).

Destroying infectious microorganisms or abnormal cells.

Infectious diseases occur when viruses, bacteria, protozoa or fungi invade the body. Antibiotics e.g. penicillin can destroy bacteria by killing them directly or by preventing their multiplying. Anti-fungals commonly used for infections of the skin and mouth (e.g. …) work by disrupting infected cells. Other medicines work by killing abnormal cells, for example some anti-cancer drugs directly target and kill harmful cancer cells.

3. Заполните пропуски в скобках в упр. 1. необходимыми по смыслу словами и словосочетаниями, из списка ниже. Составьте с ними свои собственные предложения.

 

Clotrimazole and miconazole; scurvy; anti-coagulants; medicines used in the treatment of

epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease; insulin deficiency; amino acids; calcium channel blockers;

mediators; receptors; hormone deficiency; anemia; thyroid hormone deficiency.

 

3. Найдите в тексте «How do medicines work?» ответы на следующие вопросы.

 

1. How do antibiotics destroy bacteria?

2. What are the important substances in the human body?

3. When do deficiency disorders occur?

4. What are all human tissues made up of?

5. What conditions do medicines altering the activity of cells treat?

6. How can deficiency disorders be treated?

 

4. Найдите эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний в тексте. Найдите

предложения, в которых они были использованы и переведите их на русский язык.

 

- противогрибковый; - повреждение ткани;

- изменять активность клетки; - нарушения свертываемости крови;

- выделяемые клетками; - противовоспалительные средства;

- железодефицитная анемия; - предотвращать размножение;

- восстанавливать уровень - разрушать бактерии.

недостающих веществ;

 

5. Расположите эти предложения в правильном порядке так, чтобы они освещали

основное содержание текста.

 

1. In addition, many medicines work by destroying infectious microorganisms or

abnormal cells.

2. For example, antibiotics such as penicillin can destroy bacteria by killing them directly or

by preventing their multiplying .

3. Other medicines work by killing abnormal cells, for example some anti-cancer drugs

directly target and kill harmful cancer cells.

4. These deficiency disorders can be treated with medicines or hormones that replace or

restore the levels of the missing substances.

5. So these medicines are used to treat a variety of conditions, such as blood clotting

disorders, heart and kidney diseases.

6. Some important substances are insufficient or lacking, this can lead to medical disorders

called deficiency disorders.

7. Infectious diseases occur when viruses, bacteria, protozoa or fungi invade the body.

8. Medicines replace substances that are deficient or missing in the body.

9. Medicines also alter the activity of cells.

10. Thus, medicines destroy infectious microorganisms or abnormal cells.

 


Unit 5

Drugs and their effects



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