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Sources, forms, keeping and storage of drugs.

 

Drugs are chemical substances used in medicine in the treatment of diseases. These chemical substances can come from many different sources. They can be obtained from various parts of plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and rhizomes. Examples of such medicines are: digitalis from a plant called foxglove, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin) from a plant called mold.

Some drugs may be of animal origin. They are produced from the blood, serum, bile and other tissues and organs of animals.

Some drugs are synthesized in the laboratory (methatrexate and prednisone); vitamins are obtained from food substances. Mineral waters, salts and other natural substances are also used as drugs.

Drugs are produced in hard, soft, liquid and other forms. Hard forms of drugs are: tablets, pills and powders. Soft forms are oils, ointments, creams and so on. Liquid forms of drugs are: solutions, mixtures, infusions, decoctions, tinctures etc. Gases, vapours and aerosols are also used in medicine.

Drugs are kept in bottles, boxes, parcels, tubes, ampoules and jars. Every small bottle or a box has a label with the name of medicine stuck on it. There are labels of three colors. White ones are stuck to indicate drugs for internal use. Yellow labels indicate drugs for external use and blue labels show drugs that should be used for injections. The dose to be taken and directions for the administration are also written on the label. Nurses, doctors and patients themselves must not confuse different medicines because some of them are poisonous and their overdosage may cause an untoward reaction and sometimes even death.

Drugs are stored at room temperature, in cool places and refrigerators where they are protected from sunlight and fire, in dark places and away from children.

4. Закончите предложения, заменив русские слова в скобках их английскими эквивалентами.

1. Drugs can come from many different (источников).

2. Drugs can be obtained from various parts of plants, such as (листья, стебли, корни, корневища).

3. Liquid forms of drugs are: (настой, настойка, отвар).

4. Every small bottle or a box has (этикетку) with the name of medicine stuck on it.

5. White ones are stuck to (указывать) drugs for internal use.

6. Nurses, doctors and patients themselves must not (путать) different medicines because some of them are poisonous and their (передозировка) may cause an untoward reaction and sometimes even death.

 

5. Закончите предложения, используя подходящие по смыслу слова, приведенные ниже.

1. Drugs are stored at ….

2. Yellow … indicate drugs for external use.

3. Vitamins … from food substances.

4. … and directions for the administration are also written on the label.

5. Some of drugs are …

6. Gases, … and aerosols are also used in medicine.

 

The dose to be taken, labels, vapours, are obtained, room temperature, poisonous.

 

6. Найдите в тексте “Sources, forms, keeping and storage of drugs” английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний. Составьте предложения с ними по содержанию текста.

- химические вещества; - этикетка с названием лекарства;

- получать из различных источников; - вызывать неблагоприятную реакцию;



- животного происхождения; - некоторые лекарства ядовиты;

- жидкие формы; - храниться при.

 

7. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Лекарства используются в медицине для лечения различных заболеваний.

  1. Лекарства могут быть получены из разных источников.
  2. Некоторые лекарства синтезируются в лаборатории.
  3. Лекарства хранят в коробочках, бутылках, ампулах, баночках.
  4. Доза, которую необходимо принять, написана на этикетке.
  5. Передозировка может вызвать побочную реакцию и даже смерть.

 

8. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту "Sources, forms, keeping and storage of drugs".

1. What are drugs?

2. What sources can drugs come from?

3. What forms are drugs produced in?

4. Where are drugs kept?

5. What is written on the label of each drug?

6. Why must not doctors, nurses, patients confuse different medicines?

7. How are drugs stored?

Активизация грамматики.

1. Закончите предложения, используя модальные глаголы can, may, must. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Medicines … be very beneficial.

2. You ... be very careful while taking drugs.

3. Some medicines … cause untoward reactions and even death.

4. Drugs … be dangerous if taken in the wrong amount.

5. One … follow the instructions indicated on a bottle or a packet of a drug.

6. Drugs … have various forms.

 

2. Сравните выделенные формы глаголов в парах предложений и укажите разницу между ними. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Drugs can influence some processes in the human organism.

2. A person must take a proper dosage of any drug.

3. Drug overdosage may cause an untoward reaction.

Some processes in the human organism can be influencedby drugs.

A proper dosage of a drug must be taken.

An untoward reaction may be causedby drug overdosage.


 

3. Изложите следующую информацию в страдательном залоге, сохранив временную форму глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. In chemical industry one may synthesize artificial substances.

2. Using modern pharmacokinetic methods one can determine a specific optimal dose for each patient.

3. A person must take drugs for internal use on an empty stomach.

4. Some drugs can produce insoluble and non-absorptive complexes.

 

4. Закончите предложения, используя модальные глаголы can, may, must. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. This new drug for pulmonary embolism … be tested.

2. Some remedies containing ferrum salts, calcium, magnesium, aluminium (including a number of antacid drugs) …produce insoluble complexes with tetracycline.

3. Drugs … speed up the action of the central nervous system.

4. Too much alcohol … result in cancer, brain damage, mental disorder, loss of social functions, blood disorders.

5. You … consult your doctor before taking this drug.

6. Medicines … be kept away form children.

 

5. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

  1. Двухлетнему ребенку необходимо ввести пенициллин.
  2. Лекарства должны выписываться, когда это абсолютно необходимо.
  3. Лекарственные средства могут вызывать физическую зависимость.
  4. Могут ли лекарства вызывать эмоциональную зависимость?
  5. Необходимо соблюдать дозу лекарства указанную на этикетке или назначенную врачом.
  6. Лекарства могут блокировать патологические процессы в человеческом организме.

Практикум.

1. Изучите комментарии к тексту, прочтите текст и переведите текст на русский язык.

Озаглавьте текст. Обоснуйте свой выбор.

Medicines are used to treat or prevent disease. For thousands of years people have been using medicines. In the earliest times they used natural substances from fruits, leaves, roots to ease pain and bring relief. Some of the early remedies worked for some reasons. For instance, mouldy bread was used as a poultice and the antibiotic produced by the mould helped to destroy the bacteria causing the infection. Many of “old wives’ tales” would still be useful if we did not have modern drugs.

Early examples of medicines include opium, which is found in oriental poppy known as the “jolly plant”. This has been used as a sedative and pain killer for at least 7,000 years. In South America, the leaves of the coca shrub were chewed by the Incas to relieve fatigue and hunger. Eventually, in 1859, the pure drug cocaine was extracted from these leaves. Cocaine was developed and used as local anesthetic in dentistry and surgery.

Many different herbs and plants have been used to provide natural extracts from which modern medicines have been extracted and developed. For example, morphine and codeine have been extracted and purified from raw opium for medical purposes. Digitalis, a heart drug, is made from foxglove leaves, and aspirin-like compounds can be developed from the bark of willow trees.

Комментарии к тексту

to prevent disease – предотвращать заболевание

to bring relief – принести облегчение

mouldy bread – заплесневелый хлеб

to relieve fatigue and hunger – облегчить, снять утомление и голод

the bark of willow tree – кора ивы

poultice – припарка

2. Расположите предложения в надлежащем порядке, чтобы получилось краткое изложение текста.

1. Many different herbs and plants have been used to provide natural extracts from which modern medicines have been extracted and developed.

2. Opium was used as a sedative and pain killer.

3. Many of “old wives’ tales” would still be useful if we did not have modern drugs.

4. Medicines are used to treat or prevent disease.

5. In the earliest times they used natural substances from fruits, leaves, roots to ease pain and bring relief.

6. For instance, the antibiotic produced by the mould helped to destroy bacteria causing the infection.

7. Cocaine was used as local anesthetic in surgery.

 

3. Составьте ваши собственные предложения, используя следующие слова и выражения.

To treat or prevent disease, natural substances, to ease pain, to bring relief, to destroy bacteria, to cause infection, modern drugs, to develop, for medicinal purpose.

4. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы.

1. What are medicines used for?

2. What did people use to ease pain and bring relief in the earliest times?

3. What was mouldy bread used for?

4. What did early examples of medicines include?

5. Where was cocaine used?

6. What sources have modern medicines been extracted and developed from?

 

5. Выразите главную мысль каждого абзаца в одном предложении, используя следующие выражения:

- I’d like to point out that…

- …is still in question

- It seems unlikely/very likely…

 

 

Unit 3



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