ТЕКСТ Б Mining and Geological Higher Education in Russia
In Russia young people get mining education at special institutes which train geologists and mining engineers for coal and ore mining. The total number of students of an institute includes full-time students, part-time students and postgraduate students.
Russian higher educational establishments offer different specializations for the students. Thus, at the geological institutes, the students specialize in geology, the science which deals with different problems connected with the Earth, its history, the study of rocks, their physical and chemical properties. One of the mai.i tasks of geology is to prospect, discover and study the deposits of useful minerals.
Geology is both a theoretical and an applied science. Mining geology is of great importance to the mining engineer. As a rule, mining geology includes economic geology.
The outstanding Russian geologist V.A. Obruchev says that geology is the science of the Earth which reveals to us how the Earth took shape, its composition and its changes. Geology helps prospect for ores, coal, oil, salt and other useful minerals.
Higher mining schools (universities, academies, institutes and colleges) develop a wide range of courses and programmes that meet the requirements of the society .They offer courses in mining technology, machinery and transport, hydraulic engineering, electrical engineering, industrial electronics, automation, surveying, geodesy, information technology, etc.
The main trend in the development of higher mining education
is the introduction of courses in environmental protection, manage
ment (environmental human resources), economics and manage
ment of mining enterprises, marketing1 studies, computer-aided
design (CAD)2 and others. ' ,.
Computer science is also of great importance. The course aims at providing students with understanding how software and hardware technology helps solving problems.
Laboratory work is an important part in training specialists. Experiments in laboratories and workshops will help students to develop their practical skills. They have a short period of field work to gain working experience.
The students go through practical training at mines, plants and other industrial enterprises.. They become familiar with all stages of production and every job from worker to engineer. Here they get practical knowledge and experience necessary for their diploma .(graduation) papers.
A lot of students belong to students' scientific groups. They take part in the research projects which their departments usually conduct. Postgraduates carry out research in different fields of science and engineering.
Sport centres give the students opportunities to play different sports such as tennis, football, basketball, volleyball, swimming, ' skiing, water polo, boxing, wrestling and others. (
Students graduate from mining and geological higher schools as mining engineers, mining mechanical engineers, ecologists, mining electrical engineers, geologists, economists and managers for mining industry.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ Б
Marketing и — (маркетинг) процесс выявления и удовлетворения спроса
На изделия компании
Computer-aided design (CAD) — автоматизированное проектирование
25. Найдите в тексте т выпишите существительные с суффиксами -1st,
-aunt, -алее, -Оон и прилагательные с суффиксами -в/, -ent, -fill, -ic, -able.
-ist -ment -ance -tion -al -ent -ful -ic -able
26. Прочитайте следующие сочетания слов и переведите их:
Mining engineers higher mining schools
Ore mining mining technology
Full-time students hydraulic engineering
Part-time students electrical engineering
Postgraduate students industrial electronics
Theoretical science information technology
Applied science environmental protection
Mineral deposits human resources
Structural geology computer science
Practical skills hardware/software technology
Practical training diploma paper
27. Ответьте в* следующие вопросы:
1. Where can one get mining education in Russia?
2. What does geology study?
3. How did Obruchev define (определять) geology?
4. Does geology deal only with prospecting for useful minerals?
5. What specializations does the Mining Institute offer?
6. What subjects do the students study?
7. Where do the students go through practical training?
8. What does the computer course aim at?
9. Do the students play sports?
28. а) Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты следующих сочета
1. physical and chemical pro- а) широкий круг проблем
perties б) денные месторождения по-
2. the deposits of useful лезных ископаемых
minerals в) горный инженер-механик
3. a wide range of problems г) вести научно-исследова-
4. valuable deposits тельскую работу
5. mining mechanical engineer д) принимать форму
6. to carry out scientific e) техническое и программное
7. take shape ж) студенты (последнего
8. undeigraduates курса)
9. graduation paper з) дипломная работа
10. hardware and software и) физические и химические
к) месторождение полезных ископаемых
6) Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты следующих сочетаний слов:
1. оканчивать институт a) to train gelogists and mining
2. поступать в университет engineers (
3. получать образование б) to gain experience
4. готовить геологов и гор- в) to play different sports
них инженеров г) students' scientific groups
5. высшие горные учебные д) to graduate from the institute
заведения е) to get education
6. приобретать опыт ж) to enter university
7. студенческие научные об- з) higher mining schools
8. заниматься различными
29. Подберите к существительным из списка А соответствующие прила
гательные из списка Б:
А. 1. properties Б. a) basic
2. workers б) rich
3. development в) practical
4.equipment r) prominent (outstanding)
5. ore д) rapid-
6. subjects e) reliable
7. training ж) skilled
8. scientist з) valuable
9. minerals и) physical
30. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значение местои
мения both и союза both... and.
|| Парный союз
| both оба
|| both ... and и ... и, как ... так и
1. In Russia, young people get mining education both at special
colleges and at mining departments of universities.
2. Practical work both in the field and in drawing classes is very
important for the future surveyor.
3. The mining institutes design their courses to give attention
both to basic engineering and mathematics. Both subjects are of great
importance for the future engineer.
4. The library has both scientific books and journals.
5. A new institute will train both geologists and mining engi
6. Both methods of prospecting are in use.
Составьте З разделительных вопроса по каждому образцу.
Образец 1: These areyour new group-mates, aren'tthey? Образец 2: You have gota lot of books on geology, haven'tyou? Образец 3: She hasn't gotany sisters or brothers, has she? Образец 4: You understandme, don'tyou? Образец 5: You don't knowthis man, do you? Образец 6: She likesto play sports, doesn'tshe? Образец 7: You didn't goto the party yesterday, didyou? Образец 8: She toldyou about a change in our plan, didn'tshe?
32. Дополните разделительные вопросы по образцу.
Geology is both a theoretical and applied science, isn 't it? You don't take part in this research project, do you?
1 - You aren 't a student,________ ?
- No, I'm a teacher.
2. Many students at your institute play different sports,
3. All your students know the name of the outstanding Russian
geologist Obruchev, ,_____ ?
4. He isn't a full-time student,__________ ?
5. You passed all your exams last year,_________ ?
6. She graduated from the institute two years ago,______ ?
7. You don't speak English,_________ ?
8. This is your teacher of English,___________ ?
33. Прочитайте текст В без словаря. Кратко суммируйте его содержание.
In pre-revolutionary Russia there were several higher mining schools which trained geologists and mining engineers. The oldest Russian school of mining was in St.Petersburg, where some well-known scientists taught: A.P. Karpinsky, B.I. Boky and others. Among the famous scientists who lectured at the Yekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk) Mining Institute was Professor I.K. Sobo-levsky, whose subject was mine surveying and geodesy.
The Technological Institute in Tomsk was opened in 1900. It was the oldest industrial and cultural centre of Siberia. The Tomsk Technological Institute had three departments: engineering, chemical and mining. The Don Polytechnic Institute founded in Novocherkassk in 1907 also had a mining department. In 1916 a new Mining Institute in Yekaterinburg came into existence.
The total number of students did not exceed two thousand with only 60 to 70 mining engineers who graduated from mining institutes each year. That was far below the number needed. It was quite obvious that the small number of these institutions could not cope with the problem of training specialists in the field of mining and geology. Little
wonder that there was a shortage of mining engineers and geologists in the mining regions of pre-revolutionary Russia.
After the Revolution the Moscow Mining Academy was the first higher mining educational establishment. In the early thirties the Academy established close contacts with the coal, oil and ore mining industries. The Academy's scientists carried out research in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, in the Donbas and in other industrial areas.
The need for geologists and mining engineers increased so much that the Academy could not cope with the problem of training a large number of specialists for the country. Among the new colleges which grew out of the Academy were the Moscow Mining Institute, the Oil Institute, the Institute of Geological Prospecting and others.
In 1950 a new mining institute appeared in Kemerovo, the centre of the coal and chemical industries in West Siberia. The In-x stitute trained mining engineers for the coal and ore mining industries of the Kuzbas. Later the Kemerovo Mining Institute was transformed into the Polytechnic Institute which is now one of the largest and most important engineering colleges in West Siberia.
34. Найдите • каждом абзаце текста предложение, выражающее его ос
35. Прочитайте первые два абзаца текста и перечислите все горные
вузы, которые имелись в дореволюционной России.
36. Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых дается оценка дея
тельности старейших горных вузов России.
37. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих русских слов
• сочетаний слов:
высшие учебные заведения; известные ученые; основы-вать; контингент студентов; справляться с (чём-л.); не удиви-тельно, что; недостаток горных инженеров и геологов; в на-чале 30-х годов; проводить исследования; к тому времени; большое количество? среди новых институтов; появляться; горнорудная промышленность; преобразовывать
38. Дополните следующие вопросы и дайте ответы по тексту.
1. How many_________ in pre-revolutionary Russia?
2. Where__________ the oldest Russian school of mining?
3.What well-known __________ taught at St.Petersburg
School of Mining?
4. What subject__________ Professor Sobolevsky________ ?
5. When __________ a mining institute in Yekaterinburg
___________ into existence?
6.__________ a shortage of mining engineers and geologists in
7. What new mining institute ____________ in 1950 in
39. Определите, какой из трех заголовке» лучше всего соответствует
содержанию текста В:
1. Mining Education in Russia.
2. Mining Education in Siberia and the Far East.
3. The Development of Mining Education in Russia.
40. а) Переведите текст со словарем:
In his book "Reminiscences of a Mining Engineer" Academician A.M. Terpigorev writes: "What I want to say to the young people of our country is: 'Love your work, put your heart and soul, all your knowledge and ability into it, and above all, never shirk small jobs, for it is small things that make up a great accomplishment. Be true patriots!
'If you love your people, if you link up your whole life with them and give them all your energy and knowledge, the people will respond with love and recognition. That is the conclusion I have drawn from my own life.' "