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I. Ask 7 questions to the text. Let your group mates answer them.

Vocabulary

 

Hierarch, interaction, nucleic acid, brain, protein, behavior, matter, genetics, heredity, human, metabolism, habitat, cell, multicellular.

 

Task

I. Translate into English

 

  1. Биология изучает живые организмы на уровне клетки, молекулы, организма и популяции.
  2. Нуклеиновые кислоты и белок являются важнейшими молекулами, входящими в состав живого организма.
  3. Биологи изучают компоненты клетки на уровне молекулы, чтобы выяснить функции клетки.
  4. Биология организмов изучает рост, развитие и физиологию организмов.
  5. Биология популяции включает в себя популяционную генетику и экологию.

II. Answer the questions.

 

  1. What did Thomas Huxley suggest? How did he explain his suggestion?
  2. What the most important advances were made in recent years?
  3. What is metabolism?
  4. Give the definition of the word “cell”.
  5. How is organismal biology connected with cellular biology?
  6. What does population genetics study?
  7. What levels does the study of humans include?

III. Give the main idea of the text: say 1-2 sentences for each passage.

 

Занятие 3

 

Read the text about botany. Find the passage which contains the information about the nomenclature and division of plants. Read and translate the passage.

 

BOTANY

Botany is the branch of biology concerned with the study of plants. Plants are now defined as multicellular organisms that carry out photosynthesis. Organisms that had previously been called plants, however, such as bacteria, algae, and fungi, continue to be the province of botany, because of their historical connection with the discipline and their many similarities to true plants. Botany is concerned with all aspects of the study of plants, from the smallest and simplest forms to the largest and most complex, from the study of all aspects of an individual plant to the complex interactions of all the different members of a complicated botanical community of plants with their environment and with animals.

Gross observations and experiments on photosynthesis and the movement of water in plants can be made without knowledge of their structure, but explanations of these phenomena require knowledge of morphology—the study and interpretation of plant form, development, and life histories—and of anatomy—the study of plant tissues and their origin and relations to one another.

Such observations were important not only in the development of plant physiology and anatomy but also in the understanding of genetics, the science of heredity, and of evolution. In the 19th century the Austrian botanist Gregor Mendel worked out the basic principles of genetics. His hybridization experiments required a knowledge of the function of the various parts of the flower in reproduction, and this knowledge was derived from the experiments of the Dutch botanist Rudolph Jacob Camerarius, who established the nature of sexual reproduction in plants. Mendel’s experiments went unnoticed; in the meantime, Charles Darwin founded the theory of evolution (which in modern form depends on the principles of genetics) without knowledge of Mendel’s work. Darwin observed variation and changes in organisms through time, and Mendel worked out the laws governing the assortment and recombination of different traits. The source of differences and changes became to be known, due to the Dutch botanist Hugo Marie de Vries.

Knowledge of anatomy, genetics, and evolution has greatly advanced plant classification by providing a rational basis for this subdivision of botany. The 17th-century British naturalist John Ray divided plants into nonflowering and flowering types, and flowering plants into dicots and monocots. The 18th-century Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus, however, provided the framework on which modern classifications are based and, just as important, a simplified system of nomenclature in which each plant is given two names: the first the name of the genus and the second the name of the species.

Botany does not depend on the fossil record for information concerning evolution and classification as much as does zoology, because the record for plants is much less complete than that for animals. Botanists—those engaged in the study of plants—occupy themselves with a broad range of activities. Many botanists are in academic positions that involve both teaching and research duties. The latter may involve laboratory work or field studies. Strictly speaking, botany is a pure science concerned with investigating the basic nature of plants.

 

Vocabulary

 

Plant, photosynthesis, bacteria, algae (alga), fungi (fungus), tissue, flower, reproduction, trait, flowering/ nonflowering, dicots/ monocots, species, to investigate, to concern, to involve, to observe, to work out.

 

Task

Questions

1.Give the definition of plants.

2. What organisms were previously included in the kingdom of plants? Speak about each of them in short.

3. Speak about the sphere of study of botany.

4. What knowledge does the explanation of photosynthesis require?

5. Speak about the great botanists and their contribution.

6. Speak about the kind of work botanists do.

 

Занятие 4

 

ZOOLOGY

Zoology is the branch of biology devoted to the study of the animal kingdom.

The study of zoology can be viewed as a series of efforts to analyze and classify animals. Aristotle was the first to devise a system of classifying animals that recognized a basic unity of plan among diverse organisms; he arranged groups of animals according to mode of reproduction and habitat. He noted that general structures appear before specialized ones, and he also distinguished between asexual and sexual reproduction.

Until the Middle Ages, zoology was a conglomeration of folklore, superstition, misconception, and descriptions of animals, but during the 12th century it began to emerge as a science. The anatomical studies of Leonardo da Vinci were far in advance of the age. His dissections and comparisons of the structure of humans and other animals led him to important conclusions. He noted, for example, that the arrangement of joints and bones in the leg is similar in both horses and humans, thus grasping the concept of homology (the similarity of corresponding parts in different kinds of animals, suggesting a common grouping).

Contemporary zoological studies have two main focuses: on particular taxonomic groups, and on the structures and processes common to most of them.

Taxonomically oriented studies concentrate on the different divisions of animal life. Invertebrate zoology deals with multicellular animals without backbones; its subdivisions include entomology (the study of insects) and malacology (the study of mollusks). Vertebrate zoology, the study of animals with backbones, is divided into ichthyology (fish), herpetology (amphibians and reptiles), ornithology (birds), and mammalogy (mammals). Paleontology, the study of fossils, is subdivided by taxonomic groups. In each of these fields, researchers investigate the classification, distribution, life cycle, and evolutionary history of the particular animal or group of animals under study.

Morphology, the study of structure, includes gross morphology, which examines entire structures or systems, such as muscles or bones; histology, which examines body tissues; and cytology, which focuses on cells and their components. Physiology, the study of function.

Animal behavioral studies developed along two lines: animal psychology, concentrated on laboratory techniques such as conditioning, and ethology, that has its origins in observations of animals under natural conditions.

The study of the interactions between animals and their environment is known as ecology.

 

 

Vocabulary

 

Kingdom, to classify, dissection, conclusion (to conclude), joint, backbone, bone, leg, muscles, horse, vertebrate/ invertebrate, insect, reptile, amphibian, mammal, life cycle.

 

Task

 

Questions

 

  1. What can you say about Aristotle’s suggestion of animal classification?
  2. Do you now any modern classifications? Speak about it.
  3. What was zoology until the Middle Ages?
  4. What contribution and in what way did da Vinci make?
  5. What focuses do modern zoological studies include?
  6. What are the two main branches of zoology?
  7. What do paleontologists study?
  8. Speak about the subdivisions of morphology.
  9. What is the difference between animal physiology and ethology?
  10. What do ecology study?

 

 

Занятие 5

 

Read the text about anatomy. Find the passage which contains the brief overview of the development of anatomy. Read and translate the passage.

 

ANATOMY

Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia - to cut up, cut open) is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy and plant anatomy.

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century including X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI imaging.

Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body.

Generally, students of certain biological sciences, paramedics, physiotherapists, nurses, and medical students learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers.

Human anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically; that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.

Vocabulary

Medicine, cadaver, X-ray, ultrasound, adult, skeleton, histology, chest, respiratory system, surgeon.

Task

I. Ask 7 questions to the text. Let your group mates answer them.



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